The Hospital, Madrasa, and Mausoleum of Sultan El-Mansour Qalawun locates in El-Muiz Le Din Allah Street in the area of Bain El-Qasrayn . The sumptuous style of decoration of the façade and the interior plan of this complex, which was built in about 2 years only, highlights the influence of the Syrian style on it. The inscription on this complex highlight that it was Sultan El-Malek El-Mansour, one of the Tatar or Mongol who were enslaved by El-Saleh Ayyub to be his retainers or Mamluks. They were known as the Bahri Mamluks since they were living on the Roda Island on the Nile in the river citadel of El-Saleh. Qalawun served as the Sultan of Egypt in 1279 and died in 1290 during his battle against the Crusaders in Acre. Some of the most attractive things in this complex are the portal of the complex is decorated with interlocking polychrome and the façade is preceded by a number of stair-steps with Thuluth inscriptions on it. This façade is also divided into several bays with arches and double-tiered windows. The Minaret of the complex has a notable design since the lower part has a square shape and the top story is beautifully ornamented with stucco carvings, while the middle part is designed on the Syrian style.
Next to the lower part of the Minaret one can see a Malqaf or wind scoop that helps in allowing the fresh air to get into the building and is one of the few remaining Malqafs in Egypt. The hospital or Maristan of Qalawun was regarded as one of the most prominent structure at that time since it was highly equipped and supplied with a great number of skillful doctors for treating all the known diseases including dysentery and fevers. The Madrasa was supplied also with various means of entertainment to please the patients such as music. One can see the hospital of Qalawun in front of Khesrew Sabil. It opens with a gateway that leads to a beautiful walk with trees on its either sides. The site of the old hospital is occupied now by a clinic of eye diseases. The original hospital was consisting of four arched aisles and a number of rooms surrounding a central aisle. Some parts of this building are ruined now, but it is worth visiting for its handsomely carved forms around the windows and the remaining three arched aisles.
The Mosque-Madrasa of Qalawun stands on one of the sides of the main street and its façade appears clearly between the hospital and the mausoleum. The portal of the Madrasa is distinguished by its bronze polygons that distinguish the Mamluk buildings' doors. The ceiling is handsomely beamed and coffered. The interior plan of the Madrasa consists of a central courtyard with two aisles at the end of it. The arched eastern aisle of the Madrasa evokes the style of the basilican churches in Syria in its classical pillars and the decoration of the double- tiered arches. There are also beautiful stucco decorations in the Madrasa. At the end of this eastern aisle stands the Mihrab that is rich glass mosaic ornaments. The Mausoleum of Sultan Qalawun can be found in the right side of the main entrance of the complex. The cenotaph is remarkable for its unusual height and the variety of decorations and the design that distinguish the Mamluk style in the following period.
Of special interest in this tomb are the beautiful stucco carvings that ornament the arches, the handsome wooden Mashrabiya door, and the stain glass over the windows. From inside, the tomb has an octagon in a square shape and is supported with piers, and Granite columns that were taken from the palace of EL-Saleh Ayyub in El-Roda. The ceiling is beautifully coffered and beamed, while the walls are beautified with marble patterns. The panels are inlaid with polychrome stone in geometric patterns and the arches of the shrine are ornamented with stucco carvings and supported with handsomely decorated square supports. The Mihrab of the mausoleum is facing the Qibla and inlaid in polychrome marble and its blind arcading and mosaic inlaid niches. The cenotaph is ornamented with a beautiful Mashrabiya screen and involves the body of Sultan Qalawun and his successor El-Nasir Muhammed. The interior design of the mausoleum is very eye-catching because the thickness of the Qibla wall is different from the other walls and the aim of that is to make the interior part directed to the Mecca while the outer face of it goes in parallel to the street. In 1869, this mausoleum was restored and the outer part of it was painted in bright and harmonious colors that fade away now and this makes it look more beautiful.
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