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The Thirteenth & Fourteenth Dynasty 

The King-Lists enumerate more than 50 kings for the Thirteenth Dynasty. There is not yet any general agreement on the order of their succession. The first ruler may have been Sekhemre-Khutawy. In fact, the known rulers at this time came and went at such a rapid pace that they even had been elected into office rather than inheriting the throne. The activities of these rulers took place mainly in the Theban Region, although the capital was to remain at ’Itt-t3wy until about 1674 BC. During this period, Egypt retained sufficient force to be respected abroad and powerful at home.

Sobekemsaf I                                                                                                                                           

His name was mentioned in architectural inscriptions at Medamud, and he was also responsible for the building activity at Abydos, Karnak, El-Tod and Elephantine. A graffito at Shatt El-Rigal provides evidence of an expedition sent into Nubia by Sobekemsaf I.

Sobekhotep III                                                                                                                                    

In the Temple of Montu at Medamud, he built a colonnade and gateways. Present at El-Kab, two particularly important administrative documents have survived from his reign: one displayed at the Brooklyn Museum, New York, providing a list of officials, and another displayed in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, consisting of tables listing the income and expenditure of the Royal Court during a month in residence at Thebes. Sobekhotep III is also known to have been not royal-blooded but the son of Mentuhotep, a Theban prince. All these kings had themselves been buried in the Middle Kingdom traditional way and a few of their pyramids have survived. At Dahshur, a pyramid belonging to ‘Ameny the Asiatic’ (probably to be identified with Amenemhat VI) was discovered in 1957

Neferhotep I   

                                                                                    Neferhotep I was perhaps buried in a pyramid at El-Lisht, some distance from Senusert I. The authority of Neferhotep I is known to have stretched as far as the First Cataract. He reigned for 11 years. His Horus name was ‘Grg-t3wy’ which means ‘He who has Founded the Two Lands’ and his Nebty name was ‘Wp-m3’t’ which means ‘He who Separates the Good’. He must have controlled not only Southern Egypt but also the whole of the Delta, with the exception of the 6th nome of Lower Egypt. According to Manetho, Xois, (Qedem, near Kafr El-Sheikh) the principal town in the 6th nome, was also the capital of the Fourteenth Dynasty which was concurrent with the Thirteenth Dynasty and with the Hyksos Dynasty that was to be established at Avaris. The astonishing aspect of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties was the apparent maintenance of Egyptian influence over neighboring countries. In Nubia, there are surviving records of Nile floods in Semna, at the level of the Second Cataract, in the first 4 years of Sekhemre-Khutawy Reign. On the other hand, similar records are not available for the reign of Amenemhat V. But the Egyptian hold on Lower Nubia remained firm during this period, at least until the reign of Ugaf, a statue of whom has been found at Semna. It was during the 8th year of the reign of Neferhotep’s brother, Sobekhotep IV, that the town of Avaris (Hwt-wrt) passed into Hyksos control. Avaris was the capital from which their influence was to spread across the Delta. The excavations of M. Bietak at El-Khatana and Tell El-Daba (which was identified once as Tanis and located about 7 km north of Faqus), have succeeded in demonstrating that it was actually the site of Avaris, and later also Piramesse. The Hyksos seizure of Avaris took place around 1730-1720 BC, according to a stela set up at the site by Ramses II and later moved to Tanis, where it was discovered by A. Mariette in 1863. This stela, which commemorated the foundation of the temple of Seth at Avaris, dates back to 400 BC.

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