Wadi Ar-Rayyan is a valley in the middle of Fayoum Governorate in the Sahara Desert (known in Egypt as the Western Desert). It was declared a natural protected area in 1989. Two artificial lakes have been created in Wadi Ar-Rayyan in 1973 when it had been submerged low desert by agricultural drainage water surplus through the establishment of an open channel extending about 9 km length connected to a 8.5 km tunnel, in order to reduce the ground water level in the surrounding areas of Lake Qaroun. The natural park covers 11,434 hectares of lakes, 1,583 hectares of wetlands, and 160,949 hectares of desert lands. Nearby, Wadi Al-Oyoun oasis covers 1,935 hectares. In the winter, lakes are rich of various types of migrating aquatic birds. The desert, on the other hand, includes attractively appealing landscapes such as sand dunes and rare formations of the uninhabited desert oases.