Kom El Ahmar is a village and an archeological site in South Egypt, about 90km southward Luxor. The Ancient Egyptian name of the village was ‘Nekhen’ and its Greek name was ‘Hierakonpolis’ (the City of the Falcon). Nekhen was the capital of Upper Egypt before the unification of the country and the building of Memphis. Around 4000 BC, Nekhen was a prehistoric settlement in which local hunters gathered in the wake of the change of climate seeking a new sedentary life where they began farming and herding. By 3500, Nekhen became a huge city that extended 2 kilometers along the River with a population of almost 7500 inhabitants. More than 4000 flint tools–such as scrapers, micro drills, bifacial knives, serrated sickle blades, crescent drills– were found there. After making Memphis as the capital, Nekhen remained as an important administrative and religious city, where the falcon god (Horus) was worshiped, during the Old and the Middle Kingdoms. Also kings from the New Kingdom restored its temples. The prominent position of the Kom El Ahmar archaeological site is attributed to the discovery of a large number of monuments and remains of temples dating back to various prehistoric and early dynastic buildings such as the brewery, a potter’s house on its land. Famous palettes and other pieces of the First and Second Dynasties, such as the Scorpion Macehead, Narmer Palette and small pieces of ivory, were found here in Kom El Ahmar in 1898 by J.E. Quibell and F.W. Green at the Temple of Horus.