Wedjat, Eye of Horus

Amulets were buried in and around the mummy bandages to provide it with protection against different types of potential dangers after death . The Eye of Horus (or 'Wedjat Eye') was a famous amulet which was used as a symbol of protection from evil . Since magic was largely prevalent in Ancient times , healing amulets ─especially the 'Wedjat Eye') ─ played an important role in curing people . In Ancient Egyptian legends , it is said that there had been a fight between Seth and Horus because the former had killed the latter's father , Osiris . In this combat , Seth had damaged Horus' eyes , but Thoth , the god of wisdom , healed them then used one of the cured eyes to revive Osiris . Based on this account , the eye of Horus became a powerful healing amulet . So important was the eye's influence over the time: the origin of the Rx abbreviation , that doctors use all over the world , and in all languages , originated from the shape of the eye of Horus .
Ancient Egyptians described what we currently known as “medical semiology” , since to them an organized physical examination were central for medical work . They used , as we do , medical maneuvers such as inspection , palpation and auscultation in order to obtain information from the patient's body . Although they did not conceive our current concepts of disease , they used the concept of syndromes , i . e . a group of signs and symptoms that delineate a recognizable pattern . They also identified some signs as markers of severe physical compromise , such as truisms , neck stiffness , weak pulse , etc .
Since they had understood the central role of some organs ─such as the heart and the kidney─ in the mummification process they did not remove these organs which they considered vital for re-incarnation . Because these organs were considered so vital , if they were damaged before mummification or during this procedure , they had to be replaced by a beetle-shaped amulet . Since this object was supposed to replace magically the absent organ , we can consider this as the first attempt “to replace a vital human organ by an artificial device” .
One of the most widely worn protective amulets was the Wedjat Eye , the restored eye of Horus . Worn by the living , this amulet often appeared on rings and as an element of necklaces . It was also placed on the body of the deceased during the mummification process to protect the incision through which the internal organs were removed .


Details of wall carvings in Petosiris Tomb, showing Osiris on his throne (up) and two winged gods holding the solar disc with Khebry the scarab in the middle (down)



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