Temple of Khnum in Esna
The major part of the original Temple of Khnum (Khnom) lies now beneath Esna's houses and a big part of its blocks where used as a construction material. The only surviving section from the temple is the Hypostyle Hall. This hall can be reached through the Nile Bank, by crossing the city's handicraft market and using a staircase (as it lies 9 meters deep). The temple was begun in the reigns of Ptolemy VI Philometor and Ptolemy VIlI Euergetes II, and remained in use through the Roman Period. It was dedicated to the Triad of Khnum, Neith, and Hak. In 1840, the temple was excavated by the Egyptian army, and was cleaned later by the Antiquities Service. It is unlikely that further excavations could be performed since these operations will require the evacuation of inhabitants from many houses and shops of the modern city. The Hypostyle Hall has eighteen columns that support a roof decorated with astronomical scenes vultures. On the temple's walls are depicted figures of rams and crocodiles representing Sobek and Khnum (also known as Khnom, Khonom and Khonoom). Check and jowl are depictions of traditional scenes that represent the king dedicating the temple to god Khnum. On the columns, other scenes of presenting offerings to various Egyptian deities are gracefully and vividly drawn. To the right, appears an interesting scene of Commodus and Khnum in a papyrus thicket and pulling on a net full of fish and game birds.