The National Movements in Egypt

In September 1918 , Egypt made the first moves towards the formation of a wafd , or delegation . This delegation attended the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 in order to voice its demands for independence . The idea for a wafd had originated among prominent members of the Umma Party , including Lutfi al Sayyid , Saad Zaghlul , Muhammad Mahmoud , Ali Sharawy , and Abd al-Aziz Fahmy . The demanding of independence in international conferences frightened the British of the influence of Saad Zaghlul and his party leading to his deporting to Malta Island .
The popular national sentiment was expressed through 1919 Revolution . The political awareness grew amongst people and it was not confined to men only , since also women participated in political movements led by Safia Zaghlul (wife of Saad Zaghlul) , Huda Sharawy (originator of the Egyptian Feminist Union) , and Mona Fahmy Wissa . 300 veiled upper-class Egyptian women staged a demonstration against the British Occupation , an event that marked the entrance of Egyptian women into public life . These conscious women and others were the pioneers of woman share in public life in Egypt . Lower-class women also demonstrated in the streets and in the countryside , they engaged in activities like cutting rail lines .
By the
end of 1919 , Britain sent Milner Commission to Egypt in an attempt to solve the situation . In 1920 , negotiations were held between Britain and Egypt in London . However , with Britain's insistence on maintaining control over the Suez Canal Zone , the Egyptian mission returned disappointed . In December 1921 , the colonizers imposed martial law and deported Zaghlul to Seychelles Island . In 1922 , Britain declared the abolition of the protectorate , the independence of Egypt and the establishment of The Egyptian Kingdom . Sultan Ahmad Fuad became King Fuad I . However , Britain continued to interfere in the Egyptian political life and imposed control over the Canal Zone , Sudan and other Egypt's external properties .
A triangular struggle over domination characterized the years after independence . Such struggle was found among the British , the King and the Nationalist Wafd Party , which had the support of the population . The first Egyptian Constitution was issued in 1923 . An electoral law was also issued that introduced a new phase in Egypt's political development represented by the parliamentary elections . In 1924 , Saad Zaghlul was elected Prime Minister . Besides the Wafd Party , other political powers emerged at that time , such as the Communist Party (1925)
and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928) with its leader Hassan al-Banna , which eventually became an effective political and religious power . In1936 , King Fuad I died and his son , Farouk succeeded him . He signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty , demanding Britain to evacuate the Egyptian Land of all British troops , except at the Suez Canal , which agreed to be evacuated by 1949 .


The area near the Karnak Temple



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