Narmer is the First Dynasty's first king whose name was known from later King Lists and from classical sources. In their own time, these kings were mostly known by their Horus names and not by their birth names which are used in the lists. As a result, both the identification and the existence of Menes are confused, but he is most probably the same as King Aha, whose reign dates back to the earliest tomb at Saqqara.

For this jumble, we are still in doubt whether the three names refer to one, two persons, or three different persons.

King Narmer's tomb was located at Abydos. Some objects dating back to his reign were found in the temples of Nekhen, Hierkonpolis, and Kom el-Ahmar.

A slate palette of green schist displayed at the Cairo Museum is ascribed to Narmer. On the palette's two sides, the scenes are different in their details, yet both commonly commemorate the King's victory over his enemies.
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