Mohammed Ali Dynasty
Although the Ottoman army remained in the country after the French left Egypt, it was weak and had large internal conflicts. A lieutenant of a contingent of Albanian Ottoman army, called Mohammed Ali, took advantage of this jumble. In the five years following the departure of the French troops, Mohammed Ali intrigued and fought to become Pasha (Governor) of Egypt. Thereafter, Mohammed Ali was undisputed master of Egypt, and his efforts henceforth were directed primarily to the maintenance of his practical independence. The Sultan of Constantinople was too weak to oppose this usurpation and the only threat to the power of Muhammad Ali Pasha could come from the Mamelukes. In 1811, Muhammad Ali arranged a plot to get rid of the danger of the Mamelukes forever. He invited 470 Mameluke soldiers to a banquet at the Citadel and ordered them to be killed in what is known as the 'Citadel Massacre' and thus, the Mameluke threat was brought to an end.
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