Keops - Khufu

Khufu was the Ancient Egyptian name for Cheops (Greek form) , and it is the abbreviated form of "Hnm-hw . f –wi" that means "Khnum protects me" . We are not definitely sure whether Khufu was the eldest son of Sneferu , thus the legitimate heir to the throne , or he was a governor of one of the provinces of Egypt –that might be EI-Menia . This last hypothesis is based on the name of this province Mn't-hw . f-wi ' which means 'the Nurse of Khufu' . However , it has been suggested that this province was only a village which Khufu inherited from his father Sneferu . It was called 'Mn't Sneferu' and then changed into 'Mn't-hw . f-wi' , considered as a province of the 16th nome of Upper Egypt .
It seems that since the Second Dynasty , some Egyptians settled in Gubeal onwards the north of Beirut . In Khufu Reign , an Egyptian temple was erected in Gubeal , on which Sneferu's name and his successors' was found inscribed . The Fourth Dynasty necropolis was undoubtedly the Giza Plateau , dominated by the pyramids of Cheops and his successors . The Giza pyramids were surrounded by streets of Mastaba tombs belonging to the officers and dignitaries who continued to attend their master's courts in the hereafter .
Khufu was still attested in the Saite Period (the 26th Dynasty) , and was increasingly popular during the Roman Period .
According to Papyrus Westcar , Khufu liked to listen to some stories of his predecessors' reigns . In this text , he is portrayed as the traditional legendary monarch , good-natured and eager to be shown amiable towards his inferiors and interested in the nature of human existence . The fourth tale in Papyrus Westcar describes his request for 'the secret chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth' which he wanted to reproduce in his mortuary temple . Then he became acquainted with a magician from Meidum , called Djedi . Djedi revealed that the secret he desired would be passed to him by the first king of the next dynasty , who is the eldest son of the matrimony of Re and a Heliopolitan priest's wife .
The rest of Papyrus Westcar describes the marvelous birth of the Fifth-Dynasty three first rulers . The text breaks off before the end of the story . Considering that his tomb was the largest monument in Egypt and one of the Seven Wonders of the World , it was surprising that the only surviving sculpture of Cheops is a tiny ivory statuette (9 cm high) . The broken fragments of this unique
portrait were found at Abydos by Flinders Petrie and the reconstructed statuette is now displayed at the Cairo Museum .
A graffito in Wadi Maghara shows that he continued his father's work in Sinai , and a stela in the diorite quarries of the Nubian shows that he also continued this work till the south of the First Cataract .
According to the Turin Canon , Khufu reigned 23 years , and the length ascribed to him by Manetho is 63 years .
Khufu's two sons , each born from a different mother , succeeded him to the throne . The first son was Djedefre who ascended the throne at the death of his father .

Details of multi-colored depictions decorating the Portico at the Temple of Ramses III

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