Egypt Independence (1952)
The year 1948 witnessed the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel by David Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv on the Palestinian Land. Many Arab countries cooperated and organized an army that entered Palestine to save it from the Israeli Occupation. The Arabs were defeated due to their poorly prepared army and the decayed weapons deal. Among warriors who were in the battle for the Negev Desert in October 1948 was Gamal Abd El-Nasser whose unit was trapped at Falluja, near Beersheba. Under the leadership of Mohammad Naguib and Abd El-Nasser, a group called 'the Free Officers'– emerging from the army –was organized in 1948. The Committee of the Free Officers was formed of nine officers. The Free Officers formed the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), which was committed to putting policy to the civilian cabinet, announcing the abolition of all civil titles (like Bey and Pasha), and controlling the political parties. The RCC elected Muhammad Naguib President and Commander-in-Chief for his popularity and his heroic actions in Arab-Israeli War of 1948. He was elected in 1951 by the Free Officers as President of the Egyptian Army Officers Club. Finding that the loyalty of the army was truly essential at that time, the Free Officers chose one of the army, Muhammad Naguib, to be their president. However, Nasser was the real power behind the RCC.
In 1951, the British demolished fifty mud houses in order to open a road for water supply for the British army. A year later, the British attacked an Egyptian police barracks at Ismailiya when its officers refused to surrender to British army. These incidents and others resulted in provoking the Egyptian anger against the British Occupation and the Burn of Cairo on January 26, 1952 was one of the consequences. The act began by some officers in Cairo who expressed their anger towards the killing of their colleagues in Ismailiya.
Due to the state of instability Egyptian were living in, blaming King Farouk (who succeeded King Fouad) on the poor performance of Egypt in the 1948 War, the Free Officers Committee decided to overthrow him in 1952. This was called the 1952 Revolution. In June 18, 1953 Egypt was declared a republic instead of a kingdom and became the Arab Republic of Egypt. Naguib became the first president and also prime minister. The struggle on the control of the government continued between Naguib and Nasser and his colleagues in the RCC from 1952 till 1954 when Naguib resigned.
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