The year 1948 witnessed the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel by David Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv on the Palestinian Land . Many Arab countries cooperated and organized an army that entered Palestine to save it from the Israeli Occupation . The
were defeated due to their poorly prepared army and the decayed weapons deal . Among warriors who were in the battle for the Negev Desert in October 1948 was Gamal Abd El-Nasser whose unit was trapped at Falluja , near Beersheba . Under the leadership of Mohammad Naguib and Abd El-Nasser , a group called 'the Free Officers'– emerging from the army –was organized in 1948 . The Committee of the Free Officers was formed of nine officers . The Free Officers formed the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) , which was committed to putting policy to the civilian cabinet , announcing the abolition of all civil titles (like Bey and Pasha) , and controlling the political parties . The RCC elected Muhammad Naguib President and Commander-in-Chief for his popularity and his heroic actions in Arab-Israeli War of 1948 . He was elected in 1951 by the Free Officers as President of the Egyptian Army Officers Club . Finding that the loyalty of the army was truly essential at that time , the Free Officers chose one of the army , Muhammad Naguib
, to be their president . However , Nasser was the real power behind the RCC .
In 1951 , the British demolished fifty mud houses in order to open a road for water supply for the British army . A year later , the British attacked an Egyptian police barracks at
when its officers refused to surrender to British army . These incidents and others resulted in provoking the Egyptian anger against the British Occupation and the Burn of
on January 26 , 1952 was one of the consequences . The act began by some officers in Cairo who expressed their anger towards the killing of their colleagues in Ismailiya .
Due to the state of instability Egyptian were living in , blaming King Farouk (who succeeded King Fouad) on the poor performance of
in the 1948 War , the Free Officers Committee decided to overthrow him in 1952 . This was called the 1952 Revolution . In June 18 , 1953 Egypt was declared a republic instead of a kingdom and became the Arab Republic of Egypt . Naguib became the first president and also prime minister . The struggle on the control of the government continued between Naguib and Nasser and his colleagues in the RCC from 1952 till 1954
when Naguib resigned .