With the death of Constantine, the Roman Empire had been divided into two parts: the Eastern part and the Western one. The Western Roman Empire collapsed due to the German invasions. While in the Eastern Roman Empire, a new Greek-Christian civilization (the Byzantine) flourished.
In Egypt, the Coptic Civilization emerged with its special new personality representing a mixture between the Greek and local Egyptians. Remarkably, Egypt depended on this Eastern Empire. Like its predecessors, Egypt, at that time, had a dual character: it was officially Byzantine but Coptic on both the local and provincial levels.