With the death of Constantine , the Roman Empire had been divided into two parts: the Eastern part and the Western one . The Western Roman Empire collapsed due to the German invasions . While in the Eastern Roman Empire , a new Greek-Christian civilization (the Byzantine) flourished .
, the Coptic Civilization emerged with its special new personality representing a mixture between the Greek and local Egyptians . Remarkably , Egypt depended on this Eastern Empire . Like its predecessors , Egypt , at that time , had a dual character: it was officially
but Coptic on both the local and provincial levels .