Augutus Octavius

Octavius began a new organization of the Roman Empire , creating two kinds of provinces: provinces under the administration of the Senate (they were calm provinces) and others under the personal administration of the Emperor , represented by strategic provinces such as Egypt , Spain , Syria and the Gauls .

Realizing the strategic situation of Egypt , Augustus recognized that any ambitious general or Senate member , who would take the control of Egypt , would think of separating the country and defending it easily or would cause famine to Rome just by preventing wheat from being sent to the Romans . So he issued a decree banning members of the Senate from entering Egypt without his permission . To eliminate any temptation of separation , Augustus divided Egypt into three administrative regions: The Delta , Central Egypt and El Fayoum and Thebes , each headed by an Epistrategos , without any military power .

The Greek spirit continued to influence many aspects of the Egyptians' life: Augustus maintained the Greek monetary system represented by the Alexandrian Coinage and the Tetradrachma appeared in this era .

Augustus concentrated power in the hands of a Roman governor in Egypt (known as the Praefectus) . The Praefectus was the supreme leader of the Roman troops , the head of the administrative apparatus and the supervisor of senior officials .

Realizing the strategic importance of Egypt together with the danger of Egyptians' riots , Augustus left agreat number of Roman Soldiers in Alexandria , Babylon (Near Memphis) , and Thebes . He also left several garrisons at strategic sites like Aswan , Philadelphia (Al-Fayoum) and Magna Hermopolis (Alashmonein) . Not only was the Roman army assigned military tasks , but it also undertook security operations , taxes collection , public services , as well as canal paving and cleaning .

Details of carvings and paintings on walls of the Tomb of Ramesses VI (KV 9), depicting scenes from the Book of the Gates

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