On the east bank of the Nile River lies El Kab, an archaeological site situated 90 km to the south of Luxor and 32 km to the south of Esna. In ancient times, its name was Nekheb, while the Greeks named it Eileithyiapolis. Just in front of El Kab, in the west bank, lies Kom El Ahmar or Ancient Nekhen or Hierakonpolis. Dating back to the Predynastic Period, both cities (El Kab and Kom El Ahmar) were religious centers of great importance in the Kingdom of Upper Egypt, before the unification of the country and the establishment of Memphis. In El-Kab, there is also a cemetery dating to the Civilization of Naqada III (toward 3300 BC), with many objects of the epoch as well as cemeteries from the Middle and New Kingdoms. The old city of El Kab was square-shaped, with a mud-bricks wall. In the center were erected two temples, one of which was dedicated to the vulture goddess Nekbet and hosted the crowning of ancient kings of Upper Egypt and the other was devoted to Sobek and Thoth. Here, there are also chapels of Amenophis III, Ramses II and Nectanebo. The major part of this archaeological site is now ruined, since the stones of the ancient building were reused as quarries.

In the archeological site of El Kab, there are various tombs dating back to the Middle and the New Kingdoms. These tombs provide us with rich information about the period of the Hyksos and the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty which led the liberation of the country. On the tombs of Ahmose, son of Abana, and that of Paheri there are unique military chronicles on the expulsion of the Hyksos.