The first inhabitants of Egypt reached the banks of the Nile River, after crosing marshes and valleyes full of difficulties and obstacles, escaping the desertification of the Sahara. The original communities settled in the country  and were structured in regions called nomos. Time passed and after times of peace and disputes the nomos were grouped into two proto-nations, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, to finally be unified by Menes towards the year 3100 a. C., considered by the ancient Egyptians the first pharaoh.