El Hassana Dome is one of the unique protected areas in Cairo, Egypt. It is located in Abu Rawash which is set around 8 kilometers from the fantastic Pyramids of Giza. The protectorate is divided into two parts by the Cairo- Alexandria desert road. Its name is derived from its hills which have the shape of domes and from its position at El Hassana Valley. It is one of a kind, and although it is small in terms of area, it contains exceptional geological formations, rocks and seashells along with a variety of fossils for some plants, coral reefs and animals with a history of about hundred million years. It was established as a protected area during the year 1989 AD but was discovered in the mid-nineteenth century by the French engineer Gustave Le Febrve upon the order of Mohamed Ali Pasha, the ruler of Egypt at that time. It is visited mainly by those who are interested in exploring the geological field and to study the science of fossils. In addition, it allows scientists to find out more about the ancient environmental conditions and change of climate occurred over the past years in this region, and learning more about these conditions help in discovering more about ancient history. Therefore, it is considered a natural museum with major scientific and cultural importance. Unfortunately, it is said that its wealth of fossils and geological significance is being threatened in the meantime as a result of progression and continuous works of constructions.