– Administration under the Ayyubid Rule
Saladin was the sole ruler and he was helped by viziers, his brothers, sons and his relatives, such as El-Adil, Bahaa-Ed-Din, El-Kadi and Emad-Ed-Din. His successors followed the same policy of Saladin in running the affairs of the country. The reigns of the Ayyubid Kings were famous for Justice, kindness, tolerance and protecting the Muslims from dangers, especially from the Crusaders. The revenue of Egypt was used to stand against the Crusaders’ large fleets and armies. A large fleet and army were also built. Saladin made a separate department for the fleet, called ‘Diwan-El-Ostool’, which became very strong.
– The Economic Situation under the Ayyubids
* Agriculture under the Ayyubids
The Feudal System became weak and the farmers took the freedom to gain from their work. The government helped the farmer by digging canals and building bridges. As a consequence, this increased the revenue of the Treasury. But During the time of Sultan El-Adil, the level of the Nile decreased and a famine happened.
– Manufacture & Trade under The Ayyubid Rule
Industry continued progressing as it was earlier during the Fatimids. War industry and fleet equipments witnessed a high progress because of the needs to face the Crusaders. Trade was developed during the Ayyubids, who built a big number of boats to carry goods to Venice and Genoa and Egypt made trade treaties with many countries. The traditional trade and pilgrimage route was threatened by the Crusaders, but after the great victory of Saladin over them, the route became secure and safe. The ports of Alexandria and Damietta were full of boats coming from Italy, Syria, Greece and Cyprus. The Venetian boats used to transport some goods from the East to Europe, among which were the Syrian textiles, flax, precious stones and spices.
– Ayyubid Architecture, Art and Monuments
The Ayyubids fortified Cairo by the famous Citadel, which was built by Saladin and completed by his nephew El-Kamil, 30 years later. Saladin built it on the Mokattam Hills to be the center of the government and the fortress of his soldiers and to protect them from the Fatimids’ revolts and from the Crusaders. Saladin and his successors fortified the northern ports, especially Damietta, to protect Egypt from the attacks of Crusaders. A large number of hospitals, schools, pharmacies, mosques and mausoleums witnessed the glory of the architecture of the Ayyubid Period.
– Education under the Ayyubids
Before the Ayyubid Dynasty, there were no private schools, but there were lectures that could be all ended in the old Mosque of Amr Ibn Al-Aas and the Mosque of El-Azhar. Saladin brought Sunni scholars to teach the Sunni Creeds (which are Hanafi, Shaf’i, Maleki and Hanbaliand) and he tried to destroy the Shiite Creed. Thus, he built religious colleges in Cairo and Alexandria and El-Azhar was turned into a university. Each college had its own special professors according to its creed. There were very famous scholars at that time such as Ibn-El-Athir, Bahaa-Ed-Din Zohair (poet), Sharaf-Ed-Din, etc.