King Ramses VI was the fifth king of the Twentieth Dynasty (1156-1145 BC). He came to the throne after the death of his predecessor, Ramses V, who had ruled Egypt for only one year. Ramses VI ruled for six years and usurped the Tomb of Ramses V as his own final resting place. He enlarged this rock-cut sepulcher into one of the largest tomb in the Valley of the Kings, with a series of halls and descending corridors stretching in a straight line for about 100 meters, culminating in a burial chamber that is 45 meters deep. We know for certain that in the year 2 of Ramses VI’s rule, Ramses V was buried in this tomb, although the circumstances of his death are not clear. The scientists who participated in Napoleon’s expedition called this tomb the Tomb of Metempsychosis (transmigration of souls) because of the complex and enigmatic wall decorations that surround the remains of two pharaohs. The Tomb of Ramses VI (KV 9) is certainly, for at least one reason, one of the most interesting tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Its decorations represent sort of a treatise on theology, in which the fundamental elements are the sun and its daily journey in the world of darkness. In general, the decorations provide the story of the origins of the heavens, earth, the creation of the sun, light and life itself. The decorative plan for this tomb is one of the most sophisticated and complete in the Valley of the Kings.
– Architecture of the Tomb of Ramses VI (KV 9)
In its architecture, the Tomb of Ramses VI (KV 9) is similar to the more simplified Tomb of Ramses III (KV 11), with its succession of corridors leading to the burial chamber that has no side chambers and is preceded by a modest vestibule. A rectangular pit indicates the original position of the sarcophagus of Ramses VI in (KV 9), no traces of which remain, just as his brother’s which has also disappeared. The inner anthropoid sarcophagus of Ramses VI, made of greenish conglomerate, was found in pieces, the most beautiful of which, the Pharaoh’s face, is now in the British Museum. Entryway A of the Tomb of Ramses VI: Entryway A, the entrance to KV 9 which is located at the base of a sloping hill, is undecorated. It slopes gradually from the valley floor to gate B. The entrance walls have been plastered and have graffiti on them. On the left (south) side, high up near the overhang, traces of an ancient work plan were found that depict the vault of the Burial Chamber J ceiling. Gate B of the Tomb of Ramses VI: Gate B, above the gate into the first corridor (Corridor A lies outside the tomb’s entrance), the sun god is invoked three times in a single artistic device: Isis and Nephthys kneel before a sun disc that encloses a scarab beetle (associated with the sun-god) and a figure of the ram-headed solar deity, Ra. This is an appropriate overture to the sun’s journey into the night.
– Right and Left Sides of Corridor B of the Tomb of Ramses VI
The Right Side of Corridor B of the Tomb of Ramses VI: In Corridor B, the right (north) wall is decorated with texts and scenes from the Book of Caverns. Like the Book of the Gates on the south wall, the Book of Caverns continues through the first five chambers of KV 9. The first division begins at the eastern end of the wall with Ramses VI offering incense to Re-Horakhty and Osiris. To the left of a solar-disc, a Ram-headed figure of Re extends his hand into the middle of five registers, preparing to venture into the Netherworld and challenge the enemies of Osiris. The six units into which the journey is divided are each shown in three registers. In the top register, three serpents are followed by nine cobras and a row of bull-headed gods with human bodies who guarded the entrance to the Netherworld. In the second register, nine oval coffins (some have called them protective cocoons) hold figures of deities, some lying face down, some facing up, one standing upright. Beyond, nine jackal-headed gods bow slightly before them. Behind, two male and female deities hold a solar disc. In the middle register, ten male and one female figure walk toward the god, bowing in obeisance. Behind them, four gods stand in ovals protected by serpents, and Osiris stands in a shrine also protected by a snake. He is followed by four more coffins with goddesses. Nine goddesses stand on baskets in the fourth register, followed by nine gods in ovals and four figures standing over cauldrons of burning flesh. Finally, in the bottom, the subject is the torture of the dammed. In this chamber, three snakes stand guard over sixteen of the enemies of Osiris. The first eight have been beheaded. Texts follow these scenes explaining the role they play, as Ra and the king pass into the Netherworld. The enemies of Osiris are in the bottom register. Unfortunately, the scenes on the ceiling of Corridor B are badly damaged. The Left Side of Corridor B of the Tomb of Ramses VI: In Corridor B, the left (south) wall is decorated with scenes from the first three chapters of the Book of Gates. At the front end of the wall, the King strides into the tomb. Originally, the King shown was Ramses V, but the figure was re-cut as Ramses VI and the crown was changed, the positions of the arms were altered, and the face was remodeled to look younger and thinner. The King stands before the gods Ra-Horakhty and Osiris. Behind them, in three registers, a solar bark sails between two mountains (one of them upside down) on the western horizon. Twelve Gods of the west stand nearby. Figures are shown kneeling before staffs: one figure has an Anubis head, and is called the Neck of Ra and another has a ram’s head and is called the Head of Ra. At right, the solar bark has passed through the Second Gate that is guarded by a great snake called The Guardian of the Desert. The wall beyond is divided into three registers: the middle represents the Nile while the upper and lower registers represent the east and the west banks of the river. Four gods tow the bark on which the god Ra stands, protected by a coiled snake called the Enveloper. At top, twenty four men stand in a long row. The first twelve are worshipers of Ra, the next twelve the Just who are in The Netherworld. In the lower register, Atum leans on a staff watching dammed four figures called The Tired Ones and twenty naked men with bound arms, described as liars and blasphemers. The Third Gate, which is called “The One with Sharp Flames”, is also guarded by a serpent beyond which, twelve mummies, the “Holy Ones of the Netherworld”, stand with a serpent above their heads. To their right, twelve gods emerge from the Netherworld’s Lake of Fire. In the middle register, a bark carrying the sun-god Ra is pulled by four gods towards a long tube with bull’s heads and standing bulls at each end. This is the bark of the earth, and it is supported by 8 gods with 7 other deities seated atop it. The bark will travel through this tube and emerge before the 4th gate. More gods fill the lower register.
– Right and Left Sides of Corridor C of the Tomb of Ramses VI
Right Side of Corridor C of the Tomb of Ramses VI: In Corridor C, on the right (north) wall, the second division of the Book of Caverns follows in five registers. In the upper register, an upright snake is followed by four serpent guardians of the gate and twelve gods, Lords of Manifestations, lying in coffins, restored to life for only an instant each night as the light of Ra passes over them. Four of them have the heads of catfish, eight the head of mice. Seven goddesses, each given a different epithet, lie in coffins. In the second register, part of which is carved within a large niche, nine mourners pull their hair, wailing and crying. Twelve mummiform gods stand before a mouse-headed deity called the Eyeless One, a form of Osiris. In the third register, the ram-headed god at right watches as five men stand before him in adoration. Behind them, on the side and rear walls of a niche, itself symbolizing a coffin, others stand before a sun disc housed in a chest. The sun disc alternates with ram headed poles and user staffs. Horus stands in the fourth register before twelve figures of Osiris in coffins and gods of the divine judgment hall. Finally, register five, knife-wielding, bearded demons stand ready to torture four bound and decapitated bodies whose heads lie neatly stacked before them. Four more enemies and eight upside down enemies follow. The last four upside-down figures of the damned have had their hearts ripped out and place between their feet. Left Side of Corridor C of the Tomb of Ramses VI: In Corridor C, on the Left (south) wall, there are scenes here similar to those after the Third Gate. However, after the Fourth Gate (called the Mistress of Food), the gods change, twelve jackals, gods and cobras appear in a large niche, walking on the shores of small lakes. In the middle register, a bark is towed toward nine mummiform gods (who are in their coffins). Two groups of six goddesses stand at the edge of triangular bodies of water in the netherworld flanking a serpent that represents the passing of time. Horus stands at left in the lower register, gazing over the heads of eleven gods toward a cobra guarding the shrine of Osiris. Twelve more gods approach the shrine and four men bend forward before “pits of fire” into which the evil ones are to be thrown. Two main registers, each divided into three sub registers: The upper registers are devoted to the fifth hour and part of the sixth hour of the Book of Gates and to scenes in the judgment hall: the lower registers include the last part of the sixth hour. The fifth gate is called “She Who Acts”. The topmost register is filled with twenty-eight standing gods. Twelve of them hold a rope used to survey fields in the netherworld. Coiled ropes and coiled serpents suggest the passage of time, and the word for “life time” appears with them in the lower register. In the middle register, the bark of Ra is pulled by nine men with hidden arms. In the lower register, on the upper part of the wall, Horus leans on his staff, observing the four groups into which Egyptians divided humankind: Egyptians, Asiatics, Nubians and Libyans. Foreigners, too, the scenes indicate, will be judged by Osiris. The sixth hour, whose gate is called “The Mistress of Duration”, occupies the lower half of the wall. Twelve gods with forked sticks follow twelve gods holding a serpent with twelve human heads on its body. The snake is Apophis, the enemy of Ra, and the gods are the ones who “repulse Apophis in the sky while on their way to the Netherworld.” The heads are those of the men Apophis has swallowed. Because twenty-four gods have successfully challenged Apophis, these men can now emerge from the snake’s belly and proceed into the afterlife that is why their heads have emerged from the body of the snake. Twelve men hold a double twisted rope tied to a standing mummy. Again, the twisted rope symbolizes the passage of time. In the middle register, the bark of Ra is preceded by twelve men with hidden arms. In the lowest register, a god stands before twelve mummies (sleepy ones) laid out on biers with a huge snake, twelve other gods walk toward a circular pit of fire with a cobra coiled inside it. The appearance of men, gods and souls in units of twelve is of course, a reference to the twelve hours of the night through which the sun god passes on his bark. Judgment Hall of Osiris at the Tomb of Ramses VI: At the right (west) end of Corridor C, a representation of the Judgment Hall of Osiris has been inserted from the Book of Gates. Osiris is seated on a throne before nine “justified dead” who ascend steps before him. A beam balance in the form of a mummy stands on the dais. Four upside-down gazelle heads and, at top right, a figure of Anubis appear above Osiris. Below, two monkeys with sticks drive away a pig, symbol of evil. These scenes occur near the halfway point of the sun’s nighttime journey on its path through the Netherworld.
– Right and Left Walls of Corridor D of the Tomb Of Ramses VI
The Right (North) Wall of Corridor D of the Tomb of Ramses VI: The third division of the Book of Caverns is laid out differently than the first two. Here in three registers, the next accompanies each of fifteen scenes instead of appearing in a block after them. From top right, Ramses VI as Osiris lies in an oval protected by two snakes. Seven gods with catfish-like heads are associated with Aker and stand beneath a snake called Nehebkau, (in Whom all Sacred Energy is Joined). Ram-headed mummies lie within two mounds, about to be united with solar discs. Three deities appear in oval sarcophagi. Osiris stands in a shrine protected by four serpents. Eight deities stand in ovals. They took a vow never to lie down but to assist Osiris throughout all eternity. In the second register, Ra as a ram-headed god faces four mummiform Osiris figures. Double-headed Aker representing the earth is shown, joined by three forms of Osiris and four goddesses, and above, by a scarab beetle and reclining figure of Geb. He lies protectively above one of the bodies of Osiris. At left, three ovals, one with Osiris and two with the head and the eye of the sun are surrounded by an Ouroboros (a snake that swallows its own tail) and four bowing figures. A crocodile-headed form of Osiris stands over a snake, adored by two standing gods, one of whom pulls Osiris’ beard. In the third register, two male and female figures appear upside down. Four of the male figures have been decapitated. “You are the enemies of Osiris”, the son god states, “those enemies who have no soul, will not see my rays”. Unusually, they are accompanied by eight small figures of dead souls, condemned to the place of Annihilation. In the middle of the register, an Ithyphallic Osiris, encircled by a snake, lies beneath a solar disc and the figure of Aker. The fourth division includes a snake and a ram-headed god to the left of a sun disc. The scene deals with the rebirth of Osiris and Ra, and is similar to the beginning of the first division. A lengthy text to Ra occupies the upper half of the wall. In the uppermost, Osiris looks as if he is being tossed in the air. This is the first step in his resurrection. Farther left, Anubis and Horus stand in adoration of his renewed body and bathe and clothe him. In the third scene, a god called the Bull of the West stands before a mongoose that represents his son, Horus-Mekhentiernity, and a heart flanked by a solar disc, they are meant to symbolize the start of an act of creation. In the middle register, a ram-headed god, Ra, stands before three guards of the underworld, Horus stands before with Osiris and a snake called the Terrible Face. In the third scene, Anubis bows before Osiris. In the lower register, four bound men called “the Blood Stained”, stand upside down before a god called the Cat from Which There is No Escape, a form of the god Ra. In the middle scene, a goddess called the Annihilator holds hands with lion headed called “the One Who Destroys”, standing over the guardian of the damned; there is an accompanying text which means “the Evil ones will never be regenerated but will continue to rot away for ever.” At left, upside figures of the mutilated ones, the miserable ones are met by a man called the Annihilating Face. The Left (South) Wall of Corridor D of the Tomb of Ramses VI: The seventh hour of the Book of Gates continues here, although the gate itself (the Seat of Her Lord) was drawn at the end of Chamber B. in top of three registers, twelve of the blessed dead carry baskets of grain on their heads; twelve more carry the feather of goddess Ma’at. In the middle register, a solar bark with Ra-Horakhty and a protective snake is pulled by four men toward a large figure of a god and seven poles with jackal heads called the stakes of Geb. To these poles are tied fourteen evil ones. Each group is confronted by the figure of a god, and each is identified as the enemy of that god. In the lower register, a large figure, the lord of joy, stands before twelve deities tending grains and seven figure holding sickles. In the eighth hour, beyond a gate called “the Brilliant One”, twelve gods hold a coiled rope with human and hawk heads on it, and the other twelve carry a snake. The first group is said to “carry the rope and create the mysteries,” the second to “carry the coiled serpent rope and create the hours.” In the middle register, the sacred bark is towed in a procession led by twelve gods with scepters and four mummies called the fighting faces. In the lower register, a god leans on a staff gazing towards twelve perfect spirits lying on beds and the twelve members of “the council who judges”. Niche at the bottom of the left wall in corridor D: A small niche is decorated with parts of the Book of the Heavenly Cow, which deals with mankind’s short-lived but serious rebellion against Ra. More complete copies of these texts can be found at the tombs of Seti I and Ramses II, as well as on one of the shrines of Tutankhamen.
– Ceilings of Corridors C, D, E, and F of the Tomb of Ramses VI
They are painted with two major astronomical books which are the Book of the Day, and the Book of the Night. From the first book, the sun god is shown as a falcon and the text describes his journey from sunrise, when he is born to the goddess Nut, to sunset, when she swallows him and he begins his nighttime journey through her body. From the second book, he is shown as a ram and his nighttime journey is related to the underworld. The body of goddess Nut extends the entire length of these scenes, from the eastern end of corridor D into chamber F. The text closest to her body (between her and a band of stars) is the Book of the Day; the Book of the Night lies below the band. At the beginning of Corridor D, Nut has given birth to the sun god. Isis and Nephthys kneel before the pregnant goddess, shown with the sun god in her abdomen, ready to assist in the birth. Above, the newborn solar disc is protected by the wings of a scarab. The figures of goddesses are supported by a figure of Shu, who stands in a solar bark. Below, surrounded by water, there are two other barks, the bark of the night, and the bark of the day, Isis and Nephthys transfer the solar disc from one boat to the other. Rows of gods fill the upper and lower registers. In the middle register, four apes hail the rising sun. They are followed by nine barks. Deities thrust knives into the water to kill Apophis serpent, the enemy of the sun god, the procession ends in a scene in which the sun is delivered to goddess Nut. She will swallow it at the start of its nighttime journey. The Book of the Night records twelve-hour-long journey of the sun through the body of goddess Nut, the scenes read from the beginning of Chamber F to the beginning Corridor D. They begin with figures of spirits, the nobles, and the dead, at the end, there is an altar that supports a scarab from which water pours on the hieroglyph of “heaven”. Farther left stands figures of Isis and Nephthys, who pass the sun god from one to the other in preparation for a repeat of its daytime journey.
– Right and Left Walls of Chamber E of the Tomb of Ramses VI
The Right (North) Wall of Chamber E of the Tomb of Ramses VI: The resurrection of god Osiris continues in the fifth division of the Book of Caverns. At the top right, a large figure of goddess Nut is holding Re-Horakhty and a solar disc in her upraised hand, she is flanked by a human-headed serpents and crocodiles, and the upside-down figures of scarab, ram god and a child each with a solar disc representing the different stages in the life of the sun. At the opposite end of the wall, an Ithyphallic figure of Osiris stands with a Ba-bird on his head and a protective snake before him. Then we have two snakes flank Nut and represent the enemies of Ra. In the top register, at right, Osiris stands beneath the sun disc, his arms raised in adoration before a figure of Re-Horakhty that’s held in Nut’s hand. Behind him stand four human-headed snakes attempting to prevent sunrise. In the center scene, the gods Atum and Khepri support Ptah-tjenen. At left, a god stands in adoration before two ovals, in one stands a mummy while in the other there is 2 children. In the second register, Anubis stands before four hawk-headed mummiform figures, the oval behind Anubis holds the rod of power of Atum. At left, four goddesses surround a sun disc. In the third register, a goddess called the Butcher holds two staffs to which the enemies are tied. In the center, two arms emerge from the underworld holding a huge cauldron filled with the hearts and heads of the evil ones, another cauldron holds four headless bodies. Below the figure of Nut, in the fourth register, a coffin held by two gods is filled with hieroglyphs meaning “flesh” referring to the parts of both Ra and Osiris. The head of a ram is flanked by Osiris and Horus adoring the sun disc. In the fifth register, the god Ra greets goddess Tayet who helps to restore the god’s body. A huge cauldron, held by arms rising from the underworld is filled with upside-down symbols of flesh, souls and shadow. The Left (South) Wall of Chamber E of the Tomb of Ramses VI: The ninth hour of the book fills nearly the entire of the wall. Both gates of the ninth and the tenth hours stand at the end of the wall. At the end of the upper register, nine human-headed Ba-birds with arms stand before a god holding a staff. Behind them, twelve gods in human form walk forward. The second scene includes a vision of a very well known scene: The barque of Ra is pulled toward gods who stand beside a great rectangle of water, in which 16 male figures are floating, these are the bodies of those who were drowned in water. Because their bodies are lost, they cannot be mummified or take part in the funerary ceremonies, and therefore they require special assistance to enter the afterlife. In the third register—the last of the ninth hour—Horus stands with his staff at the end of the wall. He is observing twelve bound enemies who are walking to a fire-breathing snake holding seven mummies in its coils and they are having their arms tied in many painful ways since they are the enemies of Osiris. The tenth hour of the Book of Gates appears in the lower half of the wall in three registers. In the upper register, four headless gods wearing the crown of Upper Egypt raise a post topped with crowned human head. Aker, god of earth, supports a two headed figure of Horus and Seth, to his right, there are four headless figures wearing the crown of Lower Egypt and raising a post. Then, we can see a six headed, eight legged snake called the Walker is held by a male figure. Another serpent lies at right, its two heads are wearing the crown of Upper Egypt and carries nine human figures on its back. These serpents protect the sun god from Apophis, his enemy, then we find two gods swinging nets used to protect Ra. In the second register, the sun’s barque is preceded by 12 more net-swinging deities, four men with spears preceded them, holding a rope tied to a god called the Old One Who Emerges from the Underworld and is Prepared to kill Apophis. A snake and a crocodile with snake-like tail stand on his right. In the third register, a two headed, two legged serpent and two cobras are bound by ropes held by gods with heads of ibises, hawks, rams and human beings. Above the serpent stands a falcon, Horus of the underworld.
– Right and Left Walls of Chamber F of the Tomb of Ramses VII
Chamber F, on the right (north) wall, a long text appears after the fifth division of the Book of the Caverns, written in a repetitive, rhythmic-style reminiscent of poetry. The sixth division follows, setting the stage for the reappearance of the sun at dawn. In the upper register at right, Anubis protects two deities lying in coffins surmounted by their Ba birds. At left, Anubis stands before the sarcophagus of Ra inside which are a ram, the head of a falcon, and a solar disc, all are symbols of the sun god. It is flanked by two other coffins on which stand goddesses called Senet and Engulfer and hieroglyphs denoting “flesh”. The forepart of the solar bark can be seen in the middle sub register, pulled from the netherworld into the day by twelve gods with heads of humans, rams, and falcons. On board are symbols of the sun god: a ram with a sun disc on his horns, a scarab, and a bird. They move out of the netherworld toward a large scarab and seated sun-child, between dark and watery triangles representing the mountains of the east. In the middle register, four gods stand ready to greet the morning sun as it is pushed by a scarab beetle and emerges between two mountains. These symbols of the sun god are enclosed by a serpent that wraps its coils around him. The scene is flanked by human figure and hieroglyphs for “flesh” in oval sarcophagi. At left, Osiris-Orion stands in adoration before a hill topped with a ram-head and housing a serpent enemy. A second figure stands before an oval rising from the earth, with a deity who wears a feather headdress. In the third register, women with knives have killed four bound and decapitated men whose heads lie at their feet and whose hearts have been ripped out. The men are “the putrescence covered with the blood of chastised ones, the beheaded ones, of the enemies, lying on their sides.” At right, two female Anubis figures stand beside four bound women called “the Evil Ones, the Glory Ones”. A god and a goddess stand beside four bound and decapitated men. On the rear wall, a double scene shows king Ramses VI censing and libating before Osiris. Chamber F, Left (South) Wall, of the Tomb of Ramses VI: It’s a four-pillared chamber that was the last part of KV 9 to be worked by the quarrymen of Ramses V. The left (south) wall shows the eleventh hour of the Book of the Gates. In the upper register, eight gods armed with knives and sticks move towards Apophis. four of the gods have human heads, and four have multiple heads of snakes. Apophis is shown as a huge snake bound by a long rope held by sixteen gods who stand on his body, and by a huge fist (the Body of He Who is Hidden) that rises from the Netherworld farther right, the rope is held by four snakes. Five figures of the Helpless Ones emerge from the chain and guard it. In the middle register, the sun’s bark continues on it’s journey preceded by four standing gods, another four seated gods, some with animal heads. Before them, a large boat carries the frontally drawn face of the god Ra. The boat seems to be sailing in the wrong directions. All other boats in these scenes move to the right, while this one toward the left. This is not an error: one Egyptologist suggests that it refers to the reversal to time alluded to in the Imydwat. At right, a winged serpent is followed by a man holding a lamp, a human headed serpent, four adoring women, and a double headed figure of Seth-Horus with six cobras standing atop bows. In the lower register, twelve divine oarsmen come forward with twelve goddesses representing time, preparing to deliver the sacred bark out of the netherworld and back into daylight, the goddesses are referred to as “the Hours Who Tow (the bark).” They “take hold of the Nefert-rope in order to tow Ra in Nut,” preceded by four gods with scepters and heads of various shapes. All advance toward the eye of Ra. Beyond the twelfth gate, called the Mysterious Entrance, the twelfth hour describes preparations for the morning rebirth of the sun. In the upper register, gods carry solar discs, the blazing light, in their hands, following behind other gods carrying stars. They are accompanied by twelve gods and eight goddesses seated on serpents. A crocodile-headed god preceded them. In the middle register, the solar bark follows nine gods armed with knives and sticks, and moves towards Apophis who has been chained to five staples to keep him from hindering the sunrise. The rising sun is being enthusiastically announced by four baboons. In the lower register, gods and goddesses wear different crowns and head-dresses symbolizing the power and authority of the god. The sun now emerges through a double leaf door, guarded by Isis and Nephthys, and into the day. In one large, final scene, the goddess Nut lifts the solar bark from the netherworld. Above the bark a scarab beetle rolls the sun toward Nut, goddess of the sky who will watch its journey through the daytime sky. At sunset, the sun will be returned to Nut, when the cycle from light to dark, day to night, begins again.
– Corridor G of the Tomb of Ramses VI
Corridor G, beyond the four-pillared Chamber F, is decorated with texts and scenes from the Imydwat, (the Book of What in the Other World). The text begins on the left wall of the ramp leading from Chamber F to Corridor G. It occupies 4 registers. In the upper register, there are 42 squares containing figures of 9 baboons,12 goddesses, 3 crocodile-headed gods, 3 with jackal heads, 3 with human heads, 12 more standing goddesses. In the 2nd register, a solar barque is carrying 8 sailors, 2 goddesses and the ram-headed sun god. Before the boat, there are 2 standing figures of Maat and other deities including Osiris. There are also 4 personified stelae representing the power and the knowledge of the son god. The 3rd register shows another barque with scarab being adored by 2 figures and preceded by snakes, gods and goddesses and a staff with horns and serpents. At the bottom of the wall, baboons, serpents, gods and goddesses occupy 42 squares, as in the upper register. The second hour of Imydwat is showing the beginning of the journey across the body of the water called Wernes. In the upper register, there is a row of goddesses advancing toward a lion, a stela, a pair of crooks, a figure with the heads of both Horus and Seth as well as two seated gods. At right, there are 6 seated gods with animal-heads and knives to repel the enemies of the sun god. In the middle register, there is a great barge carrying the sun god and other deities, and is preceded by 4 barges with brows of cobra heads. The second boat carries a crocodile. The third boat carries a symbol of goddess Hathor, the fourth Maat feather, and the sun disc. In the lower register, there are four running gods bearing the hieroglyphs for (years). In the third one, at the bottom of the wall, the journey continues through the water of Osiris. In the upper register, there is a baboon seated on a small sandy island and other baboon in a shrine. In the middle register, the solar barque is preceded by other 3 boats. In the lower register, there are two groups of seated Osiris figures, one group wearing the Red Crown while the other the White Crown.
– Left Wall and Ceiling of Corridor H of the Tomb of Ramses VI
In Corridor H, on the left wall, the fourth hour moves from water world to one of desert. These are sloping pathways to the hidden gates which are in the earth of Sokar. The boat journey is a complex one, down ramps and across desert, and confronted by doors and serpents whose legs and wings are meant to emphasize the cleverness of their movement. Osiris stands in the middle register to aid the sun god and the king; Horus and Sokar protectively hold the eye of the sun god between them. At the bottom right, in the lower register, there are 14 stars and heads with solar discs to announce the successful passage of the sun barque. The 5th hour includes a complex series of scenes. In the upper register, there is a small mound representing the grave of Osiris protected by two birds, representing Isis and Nefthys. The sun, as a scarab, emerges from underside of the mound, joined with 7 men and 7 women to pull the rope attached to the sun barque. On the right wall of the ramp and Corridor G, the 6th hour is showing the solar barque sailing in the primeval waters of Nun at very deep point in the other world. In the upper register, nine deities are drawn in a semi-seated pose suggesting the process of resurrection, also nine crowned crooks with knives faced by a lion surmounted by Wedjat Eyes of Horus. At right, there are 3 chests containing solar discs and some hind parts of a lion, these scenes allude to the unification of the sun god with his Ba and his subsequent rebirth. In the middle register, the solar barque is preceded by Thoth and 16 mummiform deities called “the kings of upper and lower Egypt who will witness the god’s resurrection”. At right, the Sun god is wearing a scarab on his head and surrounded by 5 headed snakes. The lower register is showing a serpent with the heads of 4 sons of Horus emerging from its body, 14 gods and goddesses, and 9 fire-spitting serpents with knives. In the upper four registers, on the right wall, the seventh division shows the solar deity being reborn. In the upper register, a cat-headed demon had decapitated enemies of Osiris. At right stand 3 Ba birds of the god. In the middle register, the solar barque sails toward a snake which is said to be 610 feet long. It has been rendered impotent by many knives thrust through its body. At right stand four boxes (the mysterious forms of the other world). In the lower register, the sun god sits on his throne with a scepter and ankh sign in his hand facing personifications of stars. On the ceiling of Corridor H, there is goddess carrying huge cauldrons on their heads appear at the beginning of the registers one and three. These cauldrons are filled with stars and birds accompanied by gazelle head. Next three double shrines are shown holding strange-looking mummiform figures, two of them with 2 heads and 2 others with hands instead of heads. These are followed by nine figures with discs instead of heads and discs at their feet. In the middle register, a ram-head and scarab emerge from a solar disc. At right, the ram-headed solar deity stands on a boat whose prow is human head and hand. The boat floats on stars enclosed by a large serpent. Seven men with discs instead of heads stand in adoration at right followed by 2 pairs of gods with women-head-and-bodies between them. In the register below, a boat in the form of a human body carries a god with 2 ram’s heads and 4 arms. Above the gate leading to the chamber, a mountain supports human figures with discs instead of heads and sand serpents emerging from their feet.
– Right Side of Corridors G and H of the Tomb of Ramses VI
In the right side of Corridors G and H, the 8th hour shows five caverns in both upper and lower registers each closed by a single leaf wooden door. On each carven, 3 gods sit on a hieroglyphic sign on cloth. In the middle register, the solar barque continues its journey towed by 8 men. It is accompanied by an entourage of hieroglyphics meaning (followers) and 4 rams of the exalted earth. The 9th hour occupies the 2nd and 3rd registers. Much of it is a continuation of the 8th hour in which gods seated on a cloth hieroglyph prepared to be dressed in the afterlife. The solar barque sails in this scene instead of being towed. It is preceded by 12 gods carrying oars. At right, 3 deities on baskets associated with the fitting of the dead. The 10th hour can be found in the registers above and to the left of the 9th hour. In the upper one, there is a god holding a scepter preceded by a scarab and a goddess holding the solar disc. At right, goddess Sekhmet (goddess of war), in several forms, and other deities surrounded a seated figure of Thoth who holds the solar eye in his hand. In the middle register, the solar barque again is sailing. It is protected by armed guards. Osiris appeared as a falcon-headed snake and Sokar as a falcon standing on a serpent. Those who have died by drowning are shown in the lower register attended by Horus. In the 11th hour, the sun god is prepared to be reborn and to rise on the eastern horizon at day break. This hour occupies the upper 2 registers, on the right wall, and on the left of the 3rd register. In the upper register, there is a double headed god, the one provided with a face stands behind a winged serpent next to god with solar disc on his head. Beside him are the 2 Wedjat Eyes. Ten stars and god on the back of another serpent follow. Then come 12 gods, some with animal heads, some with no arms, and 4 goddesses seated on 2 headed serpents. These goddesses breathe fire bringing (the storm which appears in the other life). The solar barque sails towards dawn in the middle register, preceded by huge snake called World Encircle and snakes representing Isis and Nephthys carrying the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. The 12th hour is shown neither in the Tomb of Ramses VI (KV 9) nor Seti 1, but it was found in the Tomb of Tuthmosis III and depicts the rebirth of the sun at day break. 2 dozen of deities pull the solar boat through the body of the serpent. The solar deity appears as a scarab beetle flying to the waiting arms of god Shu (Holder of the Sky). With the coming of the 12th hour, the long nighttime journey is over and the gods rejoice, and in the lower right corner of the scene, Osiris in his form as a mummy now sleeps until the cycle is repeated.
– Chamber I of the Tomb of Ramses VI
Chamber I of Tomb KV 9 has relatively low ceiling made necessary by the presence of KV 12 as the ancient engineers discovered this when they broke through the overlying floor of KV 12, while carving the ceiling of corridor H. The decoration in this small room is reads counter-clockwise and begins immediately at the left of the entrance. In the right half of the room, there are Chapters 126, 129 and 127 of the Book of the Dead. In the top right corner of the side wall, the King is shown in adoration before 2 squared pools of water, each flanked by 4 baboons and four lamps. At left, another scene shows the King before the goddess Maat. On the right rear wall, the King stands below with 2 of his names in cartouches. The left wall of the chamber quotes chapters 124 and 125 of the Book of the Dead. On the ceiling, the King stands with various deities in the barque of the day and night beneath a winged sun disc and beside a column of cartouches with the King’s names and epithets. This register is separated from that beyond by long strip of water representing the celestial river. There is also a woman harvesting papyrus at the far right. Below the band of water, there is a second scene showing a reclining figure of Osiris rising from a lion-headed bier under an elaborate canopy to receive ankh sign by the now-destroyed figure of his son Horus.
– Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Ramses VI
The Burial Chamber of King Ramses VI is not the largest in the Valley of the Kings but, it is one of the most impressive. This is due to its extensive decoration. It is carved and painted on a stark white background with vivid red, blues and yellows. The complex scenes are from a text whose original name is unknown but which Egyptologists call the Book of the Earth, the Book of Aker, or the Creation of the Sun Disc. It is a text rarely found outside the royal burial chamber of the tombs in the Valley of the Kings. The Book of the Earth is basically elaboration of chapter eleven of the Book of the Gates, in which the solar barque emerges at dawn from the Netherworld and return back to the earth. Like the ceiling of the previous corridors, the Burial Chamber’s ceiling is also decorated with a figure of Nut and copies of the Book of the Day and the Book of the Night. The mummy of Ramses VI was once put in this tomb. However, grave robbers broke into the crypt and stole many items. The mummy was disfigured and priests relocated it to the Tomb of Amenophis II (KV 35). Both the mummy of Ramses IV and that of Ramses V have been found in that tomb which is considered to be a royal cachette.
– Rear Wall of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Ramses VI
On the left side of the back wall of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Ramses VI (KV 9), a ram-headed deity stands in the top register observing Ba-birds at prayer. One of them stands above a scarab beetle that emerges from a serpent followed by Atum and Shu. Below, the ram-headed god stands before the sun god and other deities greeting Horus as he emerges from solar disc. In the third register, on the right side below, four ovals have gods in them who stand upright in their coffins in the midst of their decomposition and putrefaction. The great god calls their souls without seeing them. He knows them by the greatness of their smell and their putrefaction. At left, a mummiform god, his wrapping carefully drawn, has a solar disc inside him. Large ovals represent the burial mounds, of the sun disc and gods with the hieroglyphic for “flesh”. Below them, gods pray among figures of Ba-birds and a hieroglyphic meaning “shadow.”
– Right and Left Walls of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Ramses VI
The Right Wall of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Ramses VI (KV 9): In the topmost register, at right, a large mummiform figure of the sun god is flanked by the deities interred in the “Mound of Darkness.” A solar barque sits atop the earth god, a double-headed Aker. Below it, the mummy of the sun god receives rays of light and rejuvenation from the solar disc. In the second register, the “Guardian of the Bodies in the west,” wearing horns and feathers on his head, stands between gods and discs, each with three mummiform figures in them. At left, a figure of Osiris is joined “in the land of the soul” by Tefnut, Shu, Khepri and Nut. Below, an Ithyphallic god stands in a cavern. Around the cavern, a great snake encloses several mummiform gods. In this and the two register below, mounds with heads and arms are emerging and having female figures lying within. In the third register, two large figures at right represent mummiform gods, one with a scarab emerging from the sun disc on his head, the other with a female figure. A god wearing a solar disc is next, emerging from the earth between a pair of arms and two cobras. The figure is followed by ten heads and arms emerging from the ground. Another ten heads appear in the sky, drawn upside down and carrying the hieroglyph for “shadow.” The lower register depicts the rising and setting of the sun above Aker, The double-headed sphinx representing the earth. The Left (South) Wall of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Ramses VI: In the upper register, at right, Osiris stands in a shrine and receives adulation from figures of his Ba. In the center of the register, two pair of arms support a huge solar disc surmounted by a mummiform sun god and flanked by fire spitting cobras. At the left, the Mysterious One holds symbols of the sun in her hands and each symbol is watched over by a human-headed snake. At far right in the second register, Horus emerges from the corpse of Osiris. Horus comes out of the body of his father, and praises him who has procreated him, while the two goddesses (Isis and Nephthys) joins his body. At the right end of the sub-register below, a sun disk is held in “The Arms of the Abyss” emerging from the Netherworld as a ram-headed god and observes three gods adoring a sun disc from which the head of Hathor emerges. In the next scene, a scarab comes out forth from the disc. It is flanked by two cobras with arms and four shrines holding deities including Osiris. In the third register, a ram-headed god stands amidst fifteen small shrines housing various gods and a scarab emerges from a large sun disc. To their left, four gods called by such names as “The Slasher,” carry the bloody decapitated bodies of the gods’ enemies. In the sub-register below, the head of the decapitated enemies are being boiled up in a huge cauldrons heated by fire-breathing heads in “The place of Annihilation”. The place of Annihilation is represented in the next scene by a woman lying in a coffin. She is called “The Body of Annihilation” and six deities stand beside her in shrines, praying.