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x The North-South Eastern Axis of Karnak Temple

This axis runs a right angle to the axis of the First through the Sixth Pylons. It extends from the Seventh Pylon through the Tenth and on to the Temple of Mut. The new axis was actually established by Queen Hatshepsut when she erected the Eighth Pylon, which is one of the earliest pylons to be built at Karnak. Earlier, a number of New Kingdom’s temples and shrines had already stood in the area when Hatshepsut ordered work here, and the new axis was intended to provide a processional connection between them, the Temple of Amen, and the Temple of Mut. Shortly after ascending the throne, Thutmes III built the Seventh Pylon in front of the Eighth.

– The Cour de la Cachette in Karnak Complex

The Cour de la Cachette (Courtyard of the Cachette) in Karnak Complex lies between the Seventh Pylon and the Great Hypostyle Hall. Between 1902 and 1909, the French archaeologist Georges Legrain cleared a huge pit that had been dug in the Cour de la Cachette in the Ptolemaic Period. Legrain discovered 780 larger-than-life-size stone statues, 17,000 bronze statuettes, and hundreds of architectural fragments that had been buried here by temple priests around 300 BC. It is one of the largest caches of statuary ever discovered, which are now in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. Legrain could not recover all of the statues buried here, and undoubtedly many more will be found one day.

– Ramses II and Hatusilis Ill Peace Treaty in Karnak Temple

The north wall of the First Court of the North-South Eastern Axis was decorated by scenes of Ramses II with a copy of the peace treaty Egypt signed with the Hittite ruler, Hatusilis III, in the year 21 of the former’s rule. Among its clauses is a declaration saying: ‘The Great Ruler of Hatti shall never trespass against the land of Egypt to take anything from it. Ramses II, the Great Ruler of Egypt shall never trespass against the land of Hatti to take anything from it.” The Treaty states that the signing of the treaty was witnessed by “thousands of gods, male and female,” and by “the mountains and the rivers of the land of Egypt; the sky, the earth, the great sea, the winds, and the clouds.”

– The Seventh Pylon at Karnak Temple

The Seventh Pylon has seven statues in front of it: four of Thutmes III (on the left), two of Second Intermediate Period kings (on the right), and one of Amenhetep II. There is also a fragment of an obelisk carved for Thutmes II; its twin one is now in Istanbul.

– The Eighth Pylon at Karnak Temple

On the Eighth Pylon of the Karnak Temple, Queen Hatshepsut inscribed a text that justified her ascendancy to the throne and she falsely attributed it to King Thutmes I. Thutmes I Inscribed this pylon, Akhenaton defaced it and Seti I restored it. On the right (west) tower, Seti and priests who carried a sacred bark, walked in a procession protected by the falcon-headed god Montu. On the rear (south) face of the pylon, Amenhetep II grasps foreign captives in the presence of Amun. It is rare that such prisoners are depicted standing, as they are here, instead of kneeling.

– The Ninth Pylon at Karnak Temple

On the Ninth Pylon of the Karnak Temple, Horemheb is shown in procession with a sacred bark. The Ninth Pylon is currently being restored after archaeologists removed six thousand blocks, which were taken by Horemheb from buildings of Amenhetep IV (Akhenaten) and used as fillings.

– Sed-Festival Temple of Amenhotep II at Karnak Complex

A Sed-Festival temple for Amenhetep II was built on the left-east side of the Fourth Court between the Ninth and Tenth Pylons. Scenes of Ramses II and Horemheb cover the temple’s walls as well as the faces of the pylons. Seti I undertook extensive restoration works in this part of the Central Enclosure. Beyond the Tenth Pylon, an avenue of ram-headed sphinxes continues to the Temple of Mut.

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