– Badr El- Gamali
El- Gamali was an Armenian slave. He joined to the army of Syria and he became famous, during the Syrian wars, until he became the most powerful general in Syria. El- Gamali accepted the offer El-Mustansir, the Caliph who invited him to come to Egypt conditioning that Badr would bring with him the Syrian troops. When he entered Cairo, he put each Turkish general at the service of a Syrian officer. Then, he restored law and order in the capital. Then, he defeated the Berbers in the Delta, invaded Alexandria, defeated the Sudanese soldiers and restored the authority of the Caliph till Aswan. He built a brick wall around Cairo with three stone gates: Bab el-Nasr; Bab el-Futuh and Bab Zuweyla (which still stands). During his reign, farmers enjoyed security, prosperity and justice and the rest 20 years of Al-Mustansir’s reign were peaceful and stable. After his death, he was followed by his son, El-Afdal Shahanshah.
– El-Afdal Shahanshah
Resembling his father’s strength, Shahanshah also followed his policy. During his time, the Crusaders began to occupy the East and they invaded Jerusalem. Then, they invaded greater part of Palestine and Syria. Therefore, El-Afdal concentrated his efforts on securing the borders of Egypt, but, suddenly, the Caliph killed him.
– Talai Ibn Ruzziq
After the killing of Al-Afdal, Egypt lived in chaos, until Talai Ibn Ruzziq came to Egypt. He was the governor of Ushmuneyn and he became a vizier, during the reign of El-Malik El-Saleh. He restored law and order, punished any guilty and executed the generals who were unjust. After his death, he was succeeded by his son, El Adel, but the governor of Upper Egypt sacked and executed him. At that time, Egypt was threatened by the invasion of the Crusaders.