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Saqqara

Saqqara is a vast Ancient Egyptian necropolis in Giza Governorate of , about 18 km to the south of Giza City. The uniqueness of the site rests on its being the only necropolis in Egypt that includes tombs from the dawn of the Egyptian History till its end. Additionally, it includes some monuments of the Greco-Roman Period. It was named after the god of the necropolis, Sokar. In studying the monuments of the necropolis, we can divide the site into a number of sections: Firstly, The Northern Section; it comprises a number of tombs, the most famous of which are the Tomb of Kaaper (Sheikh El Balad) and the Tomb of Hesire. The northern section also includes a Serapeum (the underground galleries reserved for burying the Ibis and Baboon after their mummification), a number of mud-brick mastabas for kings of the First and Second Dynasties, and a number of rock-cut tombs from the New Kingdom ; one of which is the Tomb of Aper-al. Secondly, the Middle Section that encloses the Complex of Zoser and the Pyramid of Userkaf, first king of the Fifth Dynasty. Thirdly, the Section of Teti Pyramid; it includes the Pyramid of Teti, first king of the Sixth Dynasty , the two pyramids of his wives: Iput and Khuit, as well as a number of tombs for some high officials such as Mereruka, Kagmeni, and Ankhmahor.

Fourthly, the Western Section that encompasses the Serapeum and a group of tombs, the most important of which is the Tombs of Ti , Ptahhotep , Akhethotep and the tomb of the philosophers. Fifthly, the Section of the Pyramid of Unas which includes the Pyramid of Unas with its complex, the Complex of Sekhemkhet (son of Zoser), a big number of tombs from the Old and New Kingdoms, and some tombs from the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Dynasties. Additionally, this section involves a number of highly significant tombs belonging to some members of the Royal Family such as the Tomb Akhet-Hotep and the Mastabas of the Queen Khenut and Queen Nebet, Aynofret, Princess Idut, and the Vizier Mehu. Sixthly, the Southern Section that includes some pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, pyramids of the queens, and the mastaba of Shepseskaf, known as ‘Mastabet Pharaon’. Also found at the site were the Pyramids of Pepy I, Merienre, Pepy II, the Pyramids of the Queens (Neith, Iput), and the Pyramid of Tby, one of the kings of the Eighth Dynasty.

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