The Karnak temples are considered to be a history book stating the history of Egypt from the Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic Period. During the reign of Intef II (11th dynasty), Karnak Temple was called (Pr Imn) ‘the House of Amun’, and from the reign of King Senewesert I, it was known as (Iput Swt), ‘the Most Selected of all Places’. At the Ptolemaic Period, it was called (Pt-Hr SA-TA), ‘the Sky Above the Earth’. The modern name Karnak may be derived from the ancient Egyptian word (Kar-Nd), ‘the Shrine of the Goose’, the goose was the secret bird of god Amun. The main temple of god Amun contains ten pylons on two axes;
A- Six of them extending from west to east.
B- Four from north to south. In the east side, there are the temples of: Osiris, Atun, Rahorakhti (Ra-Hor-Akhty) and Akh-mnw; in the north side, we can find the temples of Mentu and Ptah; In the south side, there are the temples of Mut and Khonsu. There are four avenues in the Karnak temples which are as follows:
- In the west, there is the Ram-Headed Avenue in front of the first pylon.
- 2- In the south side, there is Sphinx Avenue in front of the temple of Mentu.
- 3- In the west side, there are two Sphinx Avenues. The one extends from the gate of Khonsu, Temple at Karnak, in the north to Luxor Temple in the south. The second Sphinx Avenue extending from the tenth pylon of Horemhep to the Temple of Goddess Mut.