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x Islam

– Prophet Mohamed (PBUH)

Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh), the last prophet from God to humanity, was born in the holy city of Mecca, probably in the year 570 AD, from Koreish Tribe, the custodians of the sacred Kabba Shrine. In his early life, he was a shepherd and a watcher of flocks by nights and the great religious teachers Moses and David had been before him. His father, Abdullah, the youngest of Abudl Muttalib’s sons, was married to a lady from Yathreb named Amna, but he died in his twenty-fifth year, not long after his marriage. A few days after his death, Amna gave birth to a baby boy, who was named ‘Mohamed’ by his grandfather. At only six, Mohamed (Pbuh) lost his mother and he was thrown upon the care of his grandfather. After the death of his grandfather (about 579 AD), Mohamed was confided to the charge of his uncle Abu Talib who became the patriarch of Mecca. Mohamed passed his early life in his uncle’s house. From early youth, the Prophet was given to meditation. He traveled twice into Syria with his uncle. At his 25, Mohamed (Pbuh) married a lady named Khadija, who was famous for the nobility of her character. They had several children but all their sons died young, The Prophet’s daughter, Fatima Az’zahra, outlived her brothers to see the great events of their father’s life and she was married to Ali, the son of Abu Talib. Mohamed led a calm quite life for the next fifteen years. He spent a month every year in meditation and spiritual communion in a cave in Mount Hira, not far from Mecca. The Prophet’s soul was early and deeply stirred by the contemplation of those themes that ever attracted religious minds. He declared that he had visions in which Angel Gabriel appeared giving him revelations that he was commanded to make known to his fellowmen. The new faith he was to teach starts with the belief in the primary fact that “there is but one God, and Mohamed is His prophet”. The first to accept his holy mission and to abandon idolatry was his wife Khadija, followed by Ali and several notable men: Abu Baker, Omar, Hamza and Osman(Radi’Allah anhom). For a long time, Mohamed (Pbuh) endeavored to gain adherents merely by persuasion, but such was the incredulity which he everywhere met that at the end of three years his disciples numbered only forty persons.

 

 

Prophet Mohamed

Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh), the last prophet from God to humanity, was born in the holy city of Mecca, probably in the year 570 AD, from Koreish Tribe, the custodians of the sacred Kabba Shrine. In his early life, he was a shepherd and a watcher of flocks by nights and the great religious teachers Moses and David had been before him. His father, Abdullah, the youngest of Abudl Muttalib’s sons, was married to a lady from Yathreb named Amna, but he died in his twenty-fifth year, not long after his marriage. A few days after his death, Amna gave birth to a baby boy, who was named ‘Mohamed’ by his grandfather. At only six, Mohamed (Pbuh) lost his mother and he was thrown upon the care of his grandfather. After the death of his grandfather (about 579 AD), Mohamed was confided to the charge of his uncle Abu Talib who became the patriarch of Mecca. Mohamed passed his early life in his uncle’s house. From early youth, the Prophet was given to meditation. He traveled twice into Syria with his uncle. At his 25, Mohamed (Pbuh) married a lady named Khadija, who was famous for the nobility of her character. They The Minaret of El Ghuri Complex with its unique finial had several children but all their sons died young, The Prophet’s daughter, Fatima Az’zahra, outlived her brothers to see the great events of their father’s life and she was married to Ali, the son of Abu Talib. Mohamed led a calm quite life for the next fifteen years. He spent a month every year in meditation and spiritual communion in a cave in Mount Hira, not far from Mecca. The Prophet’s soul was early and deeply stirred by the contemplation of those themes that ever attracted religious minds. He declared that he had visions in which Angel Gabriel appeared giving him revelations that he was commanded to make known to his fellowmen. The new faith he was to teach starts with the belief in the primary fact that “there is but one God, and Mohamed is His prophet”. The first to accept his holy mission and to abandon idolatry was his wife Khadija, followed by Ali and several notable men: Abu Baker, Omar, Hamza and Osman(Radi’Allah anhom). For a long time, Mohamed (Pbuh) endeavored to gain adherents merely by persuasion, but such was the incredulity which he everywhere met that at the end of three years his disciples The Minaret of El Ghuri Complex with its unique finial numbered only forty person

– The Hegira

The teaching of Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh) at last aroused the anger of a powerful party of Koreish. Being the guardian of the Kabba’s national idols, that party feared that they would be compromised in the eyes of other tribes once they were to allow such heresy to be openly taught by one of their number. Accordingly, they began to persecute the Prophet (Pbuh) and his followers, especially after the death of Abu Talib and Khadija To escape this persecution, Mohamed (Pbuh) fled to the neighboring city of Medina. The Higera (or flight as the word signifies) occurred in 622 AC and was considered by the Muslims as such an important event in the history of their religion that they adopted it as the beginning of a new era, from which, dates the Islamic Calendar (Hijri).

– Mohamed (PBUH) at Medina

The people of Medina (“Yathreb”) received the Prophet and his followers with great enthusiasm. Mohamed (Pbuh) himself assisted in the building of the first mosque where he preached his simple religion of Islam. He preached brotherly love and kindness towards all human beings, especially children, widows and orphans. Not only did the Prophet (Pbuh) abolish all tribal distinction applying himself to the task of introducing order at Medina, but he also abolished blood feud and repressed lawlessness. Equal rights were granted to the Jews, who lived in large numbers in and about Medina. Mohamed made peace among hostile tribes, especially the Owes and the Khazrags whom he called Ansaar (or helpers) and placed them on equal foot with the Emigrants.

– The Faith Expands

His cause was warmly espoused by the inhabitants of Medina. With the character of a lawgiver, a moral teacher, and also that of a warrior, Mohamed (Pbuh) now declared it to be the will of God that the new faith should spread by the sword. The Meccans were much outraged with the Medinites for sheltering Mohamed (Pbuh) and his disciples, whom they considered as revolutionaries. Conflicts between them and the people of Medina were unavoidable. The first conflict took place in the valley of Badr, a few miles from Medina, where the Meccans were defeated and lost a large number of prisoners. In the third year, Abu Sufian, son of Harb, son of Ommeya, with a large army of the Meccans and their allies, entered the Medinite territories. The Muslim force, which proceeded to repel the attack, was smaller in number. A battle took place at the foot of a hill called Ohod, which ended with the defeat of the Medinites. The Loss of the Meccans was too great to allow them to attack the city and they retreated to Mecca. In the fifth year of the Hegira, the Meccans again tried to invade Medina with a large army of 10.000 men. They sieged and held the city which was warded off by the vigilance of the Prophet (Pbuh). At last, rain and storm killed their horses, and with their provisions becoming scanty, the Meccan army dissolved the way it had gathered. The Jews broke their promise to defend the city and joined the Meccans in their attack on Medina. In the sixth year, the Prophet (Pbuh) granted a charter to all monks and Christians. In this charter, the Prophet (Pbuh) undertook to protect the Christians, to guard them from all injuries, to defend their churches and the residences of their priests. In the eighth year of the Hegira, Mohamed (Pbuh) marched with ten thousand men against the idolaters in Mecca and entered it almost unopposed. With his followers, Mohamed (Pbuh) entered the Kabba and unrelentingly destroyed the idols saying:”Truth has come and falsehood vanisheth; verily falsehood is evanescent. ” Later, the new creed (Islam) became firmly established among the independent tribes of Arabia.

– Embassies Sent Abroad

Mohamed (Pbuh) sent embassies to the kings and princes of the adjacent countries such as Persia and Byzantium, and to the Negus of Abyssinia and Cyre of Egypt to invite them to embrace Islam. The king of Persia drove the envoy from his presence with contumely but the Byzantine Emperor received the ambassador with courtesy. Cyre, on the other hand, sent to the Prophet (Pbuh) a present and two Coptic maidens. Mohamed (Pbuh) married one of them named Maria who adopted the new faith and begat a baby boy named Ibrahim.

– The Year of Deputation

A large number of embassies came from all parts of Arabia to offer their allegiance to Islam. The Principal companions of the Prophet (Pbuh) received those embassies with their envoys in their houses and entertained them with instructing the newly–converted people in the duties of Islam.

– The Farewell Pilgrimage

When multitudes of Arabs came flocking to join his faith, Mohamed (Pbuh) felt that his mission was accomplished, and having a premonition of his end, he made up his mind to make a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca in 632 AC. He addressed the assembled multitude from the top of Gebel Arafat in words which yet have lived in the hearts of all Muslims.

– Tolerance of the Prophet (PBUH)

Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh) spread his faith peacefully, except when he was forced to fight against the idolaters to defend his religion. There are uncountable evidence proving his tolerance, and following are merely some of which: I- Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh) granted to the Jews of Medina the same rights given to the Muslims, provided that they would help them in defending the city. But the Jews had broken their pledged faith and joined the Meccans in their attack on Medina. Thus, he had to expel them from Medina. II-In the sixth year of the Hegira, Mohamed (Pbuh) granted to the monks and to all Christians a charter to protect them, to guard them from all injuries, to defend their churches, to help them in the repair of their churches and monasteries and not to force any Christian to reject his religion. III-On entering Mecca, in the eighth year of Hegira, the Prophet (Pbuh) forgave who had so cruelly ill-treated him. In the hour of triumph, every evil suffered was forgotten and a general amnesty was extended to the Meccans. IV-He treated the prisoners with great kindness in their captivity. He released him who either paid a pawn or who taught ten of the Ansaars reading and writing. The Effects of Islam: I-The recklessness of heathenism was abandoned and the fundamental doctrine became the unity of God: “There is no God save Allah”. II-It elevated their character and behaviors: drunkenness and gambling were forbidden, burying girls (a brutal custom among tribes) came to an end. III-Islam preached brotherly love, kindness to children, widows, and orphans as well as gentleness to animals. IV-An end was put to tribal disputes and a united nation came into existence. V-Before the advent of Islam, people persecuted those who were different from them in religious doctrines but Islam preached complete tolerance. VI- One-hundred years after the death of Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh), his followers were the masters of an empire greater than that of Rome at its zenith, an empire extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Indus and the confines of China; and from the Aral Sea to the Upper cataracts of the Nile. VII-It was not only an empire that the Muslim Arabs built, but a culture as well. Heirs of the ancient civilization that flourished on the banks of the Tigris and the Euphrates, in the land of the Nile and on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, they likewise absorbed and assimilated the main features of the Greco–Roman culture, and subsequently acted as a medium for transmitting to Medieval Europe many of those intellectual influences which awoke the Western world and set it on the road towards its modern renaissance.

– The Koran and Its Teachings

The doctrines of Islam (which means “Submission to God”) are contained in the Holy Koran. From time to time, Prophet Mohamed (Pbuh) recited to his disciples portions of the “Heavenly Book” as its contents were revealed to him in his dreams and visions. These communications were held in the “Breasts of men” or written down upon pieces of pottery, the board shoulder bones of Sheep, and the ribs of palm leaves. Soon after the death of the Prophet (Pbuh), these scraps of writing were religiously collected, and then arranged chiefly according to length. Such was the origin of the sacred book of Islam. The fundamental doctrine of Islam is the unity of God: “There is no God save Allah”, a declaration which echoes throughout the Koran .To this is added the equally binding declaration that “Mohamed is the Prophet of Allah”. The Koran orders the practice of five cardinal virtues or duties: the first is the unity of God; the second is performing prayers five times a day (with the believer’s face turned towards Mecca and engage in devotion); the third is almsgiving (or payment of the so-called holy tax); the fourth is keeping the fast of Ramadan (which lasts a whole month, throughout this period, no food must be eaten during the day time); the fifth duty is making a pilgrimage to Mecca. Every person who can possibly do so is required to make this journey.

– The Sunna

Islam is not based merely upon the Holy Koran. Rather, it rests in part upon what is known as the Sunna. The Sunna is a great body of traditions of the Prophet’s sayings (those not forming a part of the scared book), actions, practices, and decisions handed down from his immediate companions. The first collection of these was made in the second century of the death of the Prophet (Pbuh). These traditions are sacred and authoritative.

– Shi.ites

Immediately after the Prophet’s death, the question arose as to who was to succeed him. Some alleged that the post should be hereditary in the Hashemite family; others believed that it would be elective among all of Muslims and some others admitted that it should be elective from the tribe of Koreish. Ali’s adherents said that he was more worthy to succeed the Prophet (Pbuh) and that the claims to the Caliphate of Abu Baker, Omar, and Osman were false. They continued: “Had Ali been accepted for the headship of Islam, the birth of those disastrous pretensions that led to so much bloodshed in the Moslem world would have been averted.” These adherents are called “Shi’ites” since they fully supported Ali and his descendants. The Shi’ites were hostile to the Ommeyades who usurped the Caliphate from Ali and his sons, particularly after the Massacre of Karbela and the murder of Hussein Ibn Ali in Yezid’s reign.

 

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