The site of Deir el Madina is situated in a small valley between the western slope of the mountain of Thebes and the small hill of Qurnet Murai. The purpose for the presence of Deir El Madina is that it lies close to the Valley of the Kings and the Queens where the war of men would be concentrated. However, the valley and its inhabitants were not totally cut off from the outside world, as servants bringing supplies were constantly journeying up from the river.
The workmen and their families would no doubt venture down to the cultivation, from time to time, to buy goods, transact business, and look after their land and other properties which they owned outside the village proper. The name of Deir el Madina which means “the City’s Monastery” was given to the site because of the presence there of a Ptolemaic temple dedicated to Hathor and transformed during the Coptic era into a monastery. During the 18th dynasty reign of king Tuthmosis I, it was called “Set Maat” which means “place of truth” or “place of order”. Also Some texts refer to it under other names: Pa-Kber (the tomb), Pa-demi (the town), Set-Aat (the large square) And even “the marvelous place of the powerful king” according to the 18th dynasty.
Directly to the north of the workers village, there is a small Ptolemaic Temple dedicated to Hathor and Maat, to Amenophis son of Hapu and to Imhotep. It was transformed into a monastery in the Coptic period from which the site’s present name originated. The temple built in the 3rd century B.C at the time of Ptolemy IV Philopater and Ptolemy VI Philomater, it has been perfectly preserved, including a high belt of walls made of unburnt brick and the Wave Houses, it’s architectural style, rather simple, includes a hypostyle hall with two columns and a vestibule decorated with scenes of Ptolemy VI worshiping various gods. In the left part, one can see the king burning incense in front of the goddess Hathor in the form of a cow. The Bas-reliefs of the 3 chapels situated behind the vestibule, of which the central one has a door decorated with the seven heads of Hathor. The sanctuary of the goddess represent, in general various scenes, sacrifices being offered to gods. In the left chapel, there is a representation of a trial by Osiris. On the opposite wall of the same chapel, one can see Ptolemy VIII Eurgetes II offering sacrifices to Anubis wearing an unusual mantle.