Damietta (or Domyat) is the capital of Damietta Governorate that locates about 200 km north of Cairo. It is also a port on the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt from which natural gas and other industrial and agricultural products are exported. It is one of the major industrial and trade centers in Egypt that is renowned for various industries including leathers, textile and furniture industries. Moreover most of the inhabitants earn their living from fishing since it is one of the major coastal cities overlooking the Mediterranean sea whose fleet accounts for half of the boats in Egypt. Damietta is famous not only as a port but also as an agricultural city especially in rice, guava and palm trees. The ancient name of the city was Tamiat.
During the Greco-Roman Period, it became less important after the foundation of the city of Alexandria and during the Caliphate rule, Rosetta was the main port. During the Crusades attack, the city was suffered from several attacks, but both the Mamluk and the Ayyubid leaders met with victory over the bloody invasion. Because of the great importance the city enjoys, the Mamlukes Sultan El Zaher Baybars destroyed the city and rebuilt it with stronger fortifications a few kilometers from the Nile. Currently, the city has many Islamic monuments dating back to the Mamluk and Ottoman Eras.