Visit Tomb of Sen-nedjem

Tomb of Sen-nedjem
TT 1About Sen-nedjem
Sen-nedjem lived during the 19th dynasty, under the reign of Pharaoh Sethy I and the first years of Ramses II reign. He was probably buried in the chamber of his tomb around year 11 of the reign of Ramses, He was buried along with his wife Iy-neferti and his family: Sen-nedjem's parents in-law, brothers, sisters, and the children, in a tomb in the village necropolis; This permitted the production of a family tree and the ability to study the relations among these characters. The father of Sen-nedjem Khabekhnet had two wives (Tahennu and Rosu), likewise the son of Sen-nedjem Khabekhnet had (Sakh and Isis). It was also possible to draw up a list of the sons of Senn-edjem, and even to fix a chronological order of them "Teti, Khabekhnet, Bunakhtef, Rahotep, Irynefer, Khonsu, Ramesu, Anhotep, Ranekhu, Hotepu and Parahotep.
We see amongst other things, that there were two called Khabeknet, respectively the father and son of Sen-nedjem. The father of Sen-nedjem had a different title from that of his son, he was "Servant of Amun in the city of the South" Sen-nedjem himself, was "a Servant in the Place of Truth" or more completely "Servant in the Place of Truth to the west of Thebes", as were also his sons Khabekhnet and Khonsu. He lived with his wife Iyneferti in a house on the southwest corner of the village. Like others in the village, he built a tomb in the hillside nearby.
The Place of Truth designates the Theban royal necropolis; all workers of Deir el Madina taking care of the royal tombs carry this title, Sen-nedjem was a tomb worker. He was in charge of building and decorating temples tombs and funerary furniture.
He was one of the necropolis workers who was responsible for building and decorating royal Hathor, The hypothesis is that Sen-nedjem and his family could have been connected with the cult of Hathor, which would have given them a preeminence over the rest of the members of the community, This connection is indeed mentioned in the tomb of his son Khabekhnet.
Sen-nedjem was buried along with his wife Iy-neferti and his family in a tomb in the village necropolis at Deir al Madina.History and Topography of the Tomb of Sen-nedjem
The tomb was discovered on 31, January, 1886, and was excavated in 1917 – 1924 and again in 1928 – 1930, by Egyptian workers at Qurna.
On February 1st, Maspéro accompanied by Bouriant, Acatalan diplomat and Edouardo Toda set foot on the terrain.
The tomb, which bears the number (1) in the Theban necropolis as a whole, overlooks west, It is almost at the south extremity of the hill at the southern part of the village of Deir el-Medina, which is overshadowed by the Theban peak.
The houses of Sennedjem and his family were close to their home-of-eternity, at the south-western corner of the village of Deir el-Medina.
This part corresponds to an enlargement of the surrounding wall by Thutmosis I. The courtyard with dimensions of 12.35m x 9.40m, which was once closed from the east by a pylon, had at its west side, there are three chapels: those of Khonsu, Sennedjem and Khabekhnet (two sons of Sennedjem), each topped by a pyramidion.
Inside the courtyard, a well shaft was leading to Sennedjem's vault, while the chapels of Khonsou and Tjaro had no underground chambers.
Tomb No. l was directly facing the house which Sennedjem occupied in the new quarter which formed an extension to the south-west of the village of the tomb workmen, as they were called.
Very little remains of Sennedjem's chapel except the door jambs at the entrance, on which were carved a formulae dedicated to Sennedjem, his wife and his sons Khabekhnet and Khonsu.The Plan of the Tomb of Sen-nedjem
A rectangular brick-lined shaft, with steps cut into its sides, descended towards the tomb. The tomb consisted of an entrance hall leading to an antechamber, which gave access through another shaft to the burial chamber. From the antechamber, a storeroom was reached through a sloping passage.
Access to the entrance hall was concealed by a wooden door (now destroyed) at the bottom of the shaft to the west, the door was inserted in a sandstone door-frame, the jambs and lintel of which are now in the University of California's Anthropological Museum.
At that time, Deir el-Medina presented a miserable aspect. Maspéro described the state of the place as follows: the site was previously inhabited by the Theban cemetery employees between the 18th and 21st Pharaonic Dynasties, then overrun by the Copts of the Byzantine era, It was at this time a chaos of ruins.
After following such devastation, accompanied by ancient and modern plundering, the distressing aspect of the place was that of a battle field strewn in part with corpses and perforated by shell holes. It was that of funeral construction in ruins. In the tomb of Sennedjem itself,
the men of Qurna, as not to damage the door (which was bolted from the inside), they broke the lintel and the door posts, thus causing an irrevocable damage at the entry of the hypogeum.
When the two French scientists and the Spanish archaeologist arrived upon the place, they could only note the damage but on penetrating the chamber, they had the satisfaction to find it inviolate.
This vaulted final room, constructed in brick and decorated richly with multicolored paintings, was filled with coffins, mummies, funerary objects and with piles of furniture.Decoration and Scenes of the Tomb of Sen-nedjem
We have to mention that the tomb of Sennedjem is a painting tomb as it still keeps its vivid color on the walls of the tomb, which is decorated and surrounded by different scenes in painting form and colored in a very skillful way, also the funerary equipment are decorated with painting forms. The tomb and the funerary equipments reflect the development at the time of sendjem, and how the sculptures became very skillful.The Door of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
The kind of wood used in ancient Egypt was the sycamore wood, known as "nht" in hieroglyphics and considered to be a sacred material, as the goddess Hathor was the lady of the sycamore tree, or "nbt nht" in hieroglyphics.
Another type of wood which was used in ancient Egypt is the acacia wood, which is a local type of wood known as "ht" in hieroglyphic. The door of the tomb of Sennedjem was found at Deir el-Medina in AD 1886 and It's dimensions are 135 cm Height and 78 cm Width.
The tomb originally had a wooden door opening into the first small room, with a scene depicting Snnedjem and his wife, Iy-neferti playing the board game Senet. The game is spiritually connected with Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead, and may represent the Judgment of Osiris.
As for the other face of the door, on the upper register, sennedjem stands with his wife "Iy-nefreti" and their daughters praying to "Osiris" and "Maat".
On the lower part, the sons of sennedjem are standing in front of god "Ra-hor-akhty" and "Isis", their names are"khabekhnet, bakhal, rahotep, khonsu, ramsess, antotep and ranekhw.
This door leads to an entrance corridor which is decorated on both sides (east and west) and also on its ceiling to conform with the order of the various stages of the solar journey.The Entrance Corridor of the Tomb of Sen-nedjem
The east wall:
Depicts are showing here the Great cat cutting off the snake's head off with a knife. The scene is complemented at the bottom by chapter 17 of the Book of the dead (nine columns) which recounts the killing of Re's enemies. The legend in another Theban tomb recalls that the protagonist is indeed the "Great cat and aspect of Re".
To the south:
A badly damaged figure of the deceased stands in front of a hymn from chapter 16 of the Book of the Dead.
To The West:
The three lion Aker-shu and tafnut support what appears to be the western horizon where the sun sets. The columns of the text form chapter 17A of the Book of the Dead and the text read from the right – hand side, when entering the tomb, beginning with the lower register.
The entrance hall leads to the main burial chamber of Sennedjem, which contain several scenes of the most beautiful scenes seen in ancient Egypt.
The Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-nedjem
The decoration of the chamber is polychrome on yellow (ochre) base, gorgeously preserved, achieved with the palette of the time which consisted of six fundamental colors: white (chalk), black (soot), red and yellow (ochre), blue (lapis), lazuli, and turquoise blue.
The yellow (ochre) base was painted over a layer of lime wash or thin plaster, which was intended to smooth out the imperfections. The choice of this color is not neutral as it represents the solar light, and is a reminder of gold, and the material of the flesh of the gods. The skillful artist also played cleverly with white, the other solar color, for areas of a smaller size.
The groups of scenes are delimited from the floor by only two broad yellow and red bands, separated by narrow black lines. The decoration is designed like the ornamentation of a Nubian sarcophagus with an arched lid; which means that the vault includes individual scenes or tableaux, separated by longitudinal and transverse bands, equivalent to the bands carrying the protective texts which surround a mummy's body or its coffin. These bands, painted white, are covered with inscriptions in black hieroglyphs.
Notice that dark colors are predominant, which are lightened by the white bands, giving an open window impression onto the upper world.
The scenes of the walls of the burial chamber divided into scenes on the southern side, northern side, western side and eastern side.The Southern Wall of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
The south wall is divided into two parts by the opening of the small entry-corridor. Both sides are divided into two horizontal registers, on the lower registers, there can be found the hosts of the funerary meal who are turned toward the entrance, to receive the deceased couple.
Above, on the left, facing it, are the guardian demons who should prove whether they are worthy to enter.
Above, on the right, is the continuation of the Book of the Dead started in the entry.
A) THE UPPER REGISTER
It is divided into 2 rows. Sennedjem stands in front of the top row and his wife in front of the lower one. The couple must both clear the ten doors (also referred to as portals) guarded by ten genii with knives. They are simply clothed: a knee-length pleated skirt for him, a long pleated dress for her. They don't wear any jewelery, nor a fragrant ointment cone. The attitude of both suggests humility. In order to pass these first tests before reaching the Fields of Iaru, it will be necessary to give the name of each door and its guardian!
The genii - guardians supervise five doors at the top (odd numbers : 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9), and the five below (even numbers 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10); they are all represented in an identical form seated on a blue Ma'at sign, under a door represented by an inverse-L, surmounted by Khekeru. They each hold a large knife on their knees except the one who crosses two knives on his chest).
At the top advances Sennedjem:
He is surrounded by four columns of text, proclaiming his allegiance to Osiris: "Words spoken by the Osiris, the servant in the Place of Truth, Sennedjem. He says: 'I come to you Osiris, Lord of Amentet, Wenennefer, Lord of Djedu. I am loyal to you, I was loved in the Place of Truth, I loved the truth, I have done no evil; I know the ways of Amentet in the heart of Osiris, Sennedjem, Justified.
In front of him are :
Door 1: guardian with the head of a vulture, "Mistress of trembling, with the high walls, mistress of destruction, whose words (things) predict".
Door 3: guardian with the head of a crocodile, "Mistress of the altar, great of offerings”.
Door 5: the naked bald-headed child, "The one who lights fires, mistress of praise”.
Door 7 : guardian with the head with two feathers, "Shroud that veils the weak, mourner of their love".
Door 9 : guardian with the head of a jackal, "The one who stands erect, mistress of power".
Below is Iy-neferti:
Like Sennedjem above, she is also surrounded by a text. Her prayer is also addressed to Osiris.
She faces:
Door 2: guardian with the head of a lion, "Mistress of the sky, who rules the Two-lands, the destroyer, mistress of totality, whom everybody knows".
Door 4: guardian with the head of a cow, "The one who is powerful by her knives, mistress of the Two-lands”.
Door 6: guardian with the head of a snake, "Mistress of light, the great roaring, whose length is not known whose number is not known.
Door 8: guardian with the head of a bird, with a long straight beak, "Breath of the burning flame, who cannot be extinguished, provided with tongues of flame that reach afar, the one who slaughters by her hand".
Door 10: guardian with the head of a dog, "The one who is powerful of voice, mistress of power, who hears those who cry out loud, the fearful one, the terrifying one".
B) THE LOWER REGISTER
It involves the funerary banquet.
1)- The East Side
The first character seated on the left is Tutuja, behind him is his brother Mesu. Tutuja stretches out his hand towards a small table containing breads, only roughly drawn in outline, before him. The couple seated, behind them are Khabekhnet and his wife Sahti. All four of these characters are seated, with feet on a raised carpet or cushion, on high-backed chairs; the legs of which end in lion paws. The men all have a goatee beard, wear long pleated skirts and a headband, also an ointment cone, but no jewelery. They hold tightly, in their right hand, a piece of cloth. Mesu and Khabekhnet both hold an open lotus flower to their nose. Sahti lovingly holds her husband's
shoulders. She is clothed in a long pleated dress, wearing earrings and a beautiful tripartite wig surmounted with an ointment cone and pierced by an opened blue lotus.
Two small girls stand under the second and fourth chair. They carry the side-lock of childhood, but are fully clothed in long pleated dresses, which suggests that they are pubescent. The first is named Taya, and the second Henutweret. Behind these seated hosts advance eight characters, six men, a woman, and a girl. None, except the woman, has an ointment cone on the head. The men are in short pleated skirts, the woman and the girl wear a long pleated dress. The woman, like the previous one, has a beautiful tripartite wig. All bring gifts which are, without exception, of natural products, gifts of the Nile.
The first man: Bunakhtef, brings two stems of papyrus in bloom.
The second: Rahotep, a papyrus and a duck from the Nile.
The woman: Irunefer, a papyrus and a small oval vial with a long neck, containing the water from the beginning of the flood.
The third and fourth man, standing side-by-side: Khonsu and Ramose, offer the shoots of papyrus and a duck.
The fifth and sixth, again side-by-side: Anhohep and Kanekhu, offer a duck, a bouquet and two papyrus stems.
The girl at the end of the parade is not named. She, like the other two girls, has a side-lock of youth. She holds a papyrus stem in both hands.
Now, passing on to the other side of the door.
2)- The West Side:
The participants seat here are all represented in their festive attire,
of either long pleated skirts for the men or long pleated dresses for the women, they all wear headbands and fragrant ointment cones, and for the ladies, the addition of a lotus flower in the wig (except, curiously, for Iy-neferti, at the west end). However, no one wears jewellery. Once again, all of the men have a goatee beard. The characters are arranged in three groups, seated on high-backed chairs, which rest on a green colored carpet. Between them, standing facing the respective group, is a young man acting as a servitor.
The beginning of the scene is located close to the entry, with Khabekhnet, and his two wives, Tahennu and Rusu. Khabekhnet and Tahennu are Sen-nedjem's parents. Under the chair of the last wife squats a small anonymous girl, dressed identically to the female above her and so obviously wearing earrings. A servant, by the name of Roma, places ointment (represented by a cone) on the head of Khabekhnet, who holds a cloth in one hand and a Sekhem scepter of power across his chest.
The middle group is centered on Tjaro and Taya, who are Iy-neferti's parents. In front of them is another Roma who presents a sail inflated by wind, "soft breath of the North". Does he answer the deceased's major wish who chokes in the chamber's closed space, and which is expressed in many chapters of the Book of the Dead? With his other hand, he makes a libation of water with the aid of a libation vessel. The legend reads: "Bringing the breath of life and water for Osiris, Tjaro. from the hands of your son Roma, Justified, Imakhu". This last term ("blissful" or "venerated") signifies that Roma had died as the scene was being painted. Under the chair of Taya, there is another small attendee of the banquet, very similar to the previous one, but this one is named here as: Ta-ash-sen.
Finally, comes the main couple, represented in slightly larger size: Sennedjem, who holds a large Sekhem-sceptre, and Iyneferti. In front of them stands their son Bunakhtef, draped with the panther skin of the sem-priest, of which he holds a paw with his left hand. He doesn't, however, have the Shaven-Skull, as is usual for this function. With his right hand, he pours water offerings from a libation vessel. The commentary text is of a very classic formula: "An offering of all good and pure things, for your Ka, (consisting of) breads, cakes, beer, cattle, poultry and pure water; on the offering-table are other offerings from the hand of your son Bunakhtef, justified".
Finally, note that there are two children standing under the chairs, a small naked boy with a side-look, named Ranekhu, he holds a lotus flower in his hand; a young girl, also with a side-look, named Heteput; she holds a duck and a lotus flower. A final glance reveals the beautiful quality of the representation of characters in the whole banqueting scene.
C) THE UPPER REGISTER OF THE WEST SIDE OF THE SOUTH WALL
Above the banquet is a scene of funeral vigil of the mummy, which occupies the whole upper register on this side of the entry. This is another vignette from the Book of the Dead, which began in the entrance. It probably also makes reference to a ceremony which would have been held in the courtyard of the chapel before the burial.
A light construction, in wood and canvas, protects the mummy of Sennedjem. The beautiful red material, heightened of pendants, appropriate to the Osirian context, is often found. A lion-styled bed (head, tail and paws) expresses the arrival at the end of the journey, at the horizon of the western sky. The beautiful anthropoid coffin, the main body of which is enclosed in prophylactic bands on which text would have been written, lays with the head towards the west, the domain of the deceased.
It is protected by two milans (and not falcons as one sometimes expects)
representing the two goddess sisters, Isis and Nephthys. They wear on top of their heads, the hieroglyph of their names.
Isis is at the feet and behind her is the text, a reminder of her functions; she is "the great divine mother, mistress of the sky, wife of all gods". Nephthys: "powerful in speech, mistress of the sky, mistress of the two lands, who has the power to transfuse the vital fluid” is at the head, and proclaims: "I come to protect the Osiris, the servant in the Place of Truth, Sennedjem". Why were these birds of prey chosen as icons for the goddesses? Could it be because their shrill cry is a reminder of eastern laments, a cutting sharp scream, which usually accompany funeral vigils? In accordance with the well known Osirian myth, the sisters watch over the deceased, the new Osiris, as they watched over their brother (husband of one, lover of the other), the dead Osiris. So, the assimilation of Sennedjem with the Great God appears complete. Notice the spatial disposition: this scene is inseparable from that of the mummy's revivification by Anubis, which faces it on the north wall, because the god and the two goddesses act jointly to bring the Osiris back to life.
- The Northern Wall of the Chamber:
On the North-west corner, this representation is complementary to the one just described, the decoration is almost super-imposable.. The deceased again appears mummified on a bed, head towards the west. Anubis, by his magic passes through his hands, "warms" the mummy's heart which starts beating again; at the time of the real ceremony, a priest having dressed in a mask with the head of canine plays the role of the god. This scene is usually (and also more logically) represented on the west wall of the chamber.
All around the scene is inscribed a long text from the Book of the Dead, which asks for the exit on the day after the funeral. For lack of space, the scribe could not write the whole chapter, which is interrupted in the middle of the 49 sentence (which shows maybe that he didn't really understand what he recopied).
The Remainder of the North Wall:
This section involves the introduction of Sennedjem in front of Osiris, guided by Anubis. The wall is divided into three sections, of roughly equal size.
Section 1:
The action begins at the northeast corner. It is in fact the final stage of a larger scene which normally should have included the weighing of the heart which justified the dead in front of the court of gods but, this is missing. In any case, the outcome for the deceased is evidently always that he is justified, the whole scene has been telescoped in its final result: Sennedjem passed the test victoriously. He is shown wearing a beautiful pleated long skirt overlain with a shorter one; on his jet black wig, he has a headband, and on top, an ointment cone; on his chest spreads a large necklace of multicolored pearls. His left hand is held to his right shoulder, corresponds either to a gesture of fear or to a gesture of respect or both. His right hand is held by Anubis, who assumes his duplicate role of protector and opener of the paths to the beyond, leading the deceased from east to west. The god, as always, has a black canine head. He wears a blue-lapis wig, the great Usekh necklace, armbands on his upper arms, a body garment with shoulder straps and an off-white loincloth with a mid-yellow striped rear section, held in position by a belt, the clasp of which has an Isis (Tyet) knot design. In his right hand, he holds the Was-sceptre. Above the two characters, 22 columns of text say that Anubis introduces the deceased to the gods of the Duat, without him having to fear that the doors would be closed in front of him. Other columns, in front of the characters, give the titulature of Anubis and access of the Duat to Sennedjem.
Section 2:
Sennedjem is squatting on a mat, resting on his left heel, raised right knee, which corresponds to the Egyptian way of representing the cross-legged position. He also holds his left hand to his right shoulder. His wig is now streaked with grayish white strands. Its significance is not very clear, perhaps it indicates a person's seniority in relation to others. Is it about showing the time that was necessary for the deceased to reach the place where Osiris resides? Or, as Bruyère suggests, this is a consequence of the ordeals experienced by the deceased during his journey or of the terror of being in front of the great god?
Above him, a green mat supports two lettuces between three amphoras of wine, closed by a plug of clay and decorated with a blue lotus, of which the stem spirals around the body of the vessel. Between the two, a short text proclaims: "May you sit at the side of Wenennefer, may you be given bread and beer before Osiris-Khentyamenti(u), by the Osiris, the servant in the Place of the Truth, Sennedjem, Justified".
In front of Sennedjem is an enormous offerings structure comprised of three stands supporting a single top, which he presents to Osiris. Between the supports are two wine amphorae. On the top are piled various food offerings: firstly, three vases and four cakes; on top of these are two baskets with figs and grapes, an ox thigh, a waterfowl, an assortment of onions, lettuces and more grapes. Crowning all of this is a large basket of flowers and an assortment of fresh herbs. Above the offerings, Sennedjem recites the famous No. 125 of the Book of the Dead. It contains what has become known as "the negative confession". This is quoted, in principle, at the time of the Psycho-stasis, in front of the divine court. Sennedjem judged it sufficiently important to represent it here although the corresponding vignette does not appear beside it. It is interesting, because it shows the importance at that time of having led a "correct" life, conforming to Ma'at, otherwise, there would be no foreseeable chance of a destiny in the beyond. Words spoken by “the Osiris, servant in the Place of Truth, Sennedjem, Justified”. He says : 'Hail to you, Osiris, first in the west, Wenennefer, Lord of the Kingdom of the Dead, Lord of the Atef-crown with the pointed horns, beautiful of youth, first in the west. I have come to you, Oh Lord, life-health–strength. I am powerful on Earth, I did good things, I didn't remove the bread offerings from the temples; I didn't steal the cakes offered to the gods, I entered through the doors of the Duat; I was not found guilty by the scales, To chose me as one of these god servants of Horus. I am a servant in your temple, Osiris, so that you may give me air to breathe and water, spoken by the Osiris, the servant of the Place of Truth to the west of Thebes, the western mountains of Ma'at, Sennedjem, Justified.
Section 3:
Osiris stands upright (which is quite rare, he is normally seated) in a magnificently decorated kiosk with a white background. The kiosk stands on a pedestal, also white, and has a coving at the entrance.
The roof is supported by four columns (of which only two are represented), green and blue, arising from a white base, imitating sheaves of papyrus stems bound at the top, at which point are tied red and white ribbons. Each composite capitol is superimposed on four levels, are the four flowers which symbolize the four great regions of the kingdom, from north to south, when journeying up the Nile, from the Delta to the Nubia. These are, from top to bottom: the papyrus of Lower Egypt, framed by two Uraei with the head of a solar disc; the lily of Upper Egypt; the blue lotus of the cataract of Syene (Aswan); the pink lotus of the Nubia. These emblems of the four regions of Pharaonic Egypt are at the same time recalled by the four types of wines offered to the god as it is written in the temple of Abydos".
These columns support a polychromatic coving, the summit of which is
decorated by erect solar snakes, while at its base, runs a horizontal grapevine, identical to those of Lower Egypt. This is a reminder of the legend which says that the culture of the grapevine has been taught to men by Osiris, at the time when he still reigned on land. In the kiosk, the Great God stands on a blue Ma'at sign edged in yellow, on which is also a labeled vase standing on a pedestal, as well as a bound bouquet of flowers resting on top. Sheathed in his white shroud, Osiris holds in his hands the two usual symbols of his function: the crook and the flail, and a large necklace decorates his neck. His complexion is greenish, a reminder that flesh is thus in putrefaction, but also of the renewal of vegetation. His chin is decorated with a large false beard with a hooked tip. He wears the Atef crown, either side of which are two udjat eyes, symbolizing the resurrected god. Two "imuit" fetish-symbols are visible on the floor of the pavilion. Each is composed of a vase, from which emerges a pole (a reminder of the uprights of a boat cabin). Around this is attached a stuffed animal skin, from which the head and the rear legs have been removed. The front legs are attached to the pole, while the rear end (finishing in a lotus flower) twists around the upper part of
the pole. According to Moret, it refers to a skin being used during the pressing of the grape in the wine-making scenes, another expression of the blood of Osiris. In this skin the mysteries of gestation take place.The Western Wall of the Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
The Western Wall of the Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem is decorated with representations from the funeral world, completely different from the eastern wall. The composition is symmetrical in relation to a central axis. This axis is composed of a white pedestal, forming an altar which supports a labeled canopic jar, surrounded by two overlapping lotus flowers. Above is a vase surmounted by the 3 wavy lines representing Nun (the primordial ocean from which the world arose), and topped with the circular "shen" hieroglyph. This is framed by two simplified udjat eyes, a witness of the reconstituted body. This group, a highly symbolic image of rebirth, is protected by two lapis-blue Anubis jackals, one on either side, reclining on tomb-shaped structures. Around the neck of each jackal is a red bow, and a black flail projects from its back. The interpretation of the red ribbon remains controversial, possibly a chthonic symbol. The facade of the tomb-like structure, on which the jackals rest, is pierced by a door, which corresponds to the entry of the deceased's funeral chapel, and generally to the underground world, represented by the ancients as a mastaba. They also assume the same position as the baboons on the tympanum opposite, except here they represent the termination of the daily course of the sun, its setting in the west.
Main area:
Only one activity occupies the space: the couple Sennedjem and Iyneferti, advances in confidence, paying homage to the gods of the Duat who sit in a chapel: "Praise be given to the gods of the Duat, on behalf of the Osiris, the servant in the Place of Truth, Sennedjem, justified, his sister, beloved by him, the mistress of the house, Iyneferti, justified". The chapel is a large building surmounted by a frieze of erect cobras, whose heads are each surmounted by a solar disc. Under the coving at the entrance, there can be found the Osirian representation of the grapevine. The gods are all seated on a Ma'at sign and look southwards. They are arranged in two rows, on a white background: at the top, six divinities follow each other, led by Osiris. He wears a beard with the hooked tip, and also his traditional crown, as well as a necklace with a counterweight. The following gods alternately wear a hooked beard, and alternate between wearing either red or ochre garments. Below, can be seen the falcon-headed Ra-Horakhty, followed by six divinities, which, like those of the row above, are anonymous, but these likewise are gods of the Duat. Also as in the row above, they alternate between wearing red or ochre, and having or not a hooked beard. The two registers are separated by three lines of hieroglyphic text, an excerpt from the Book of the Dead: "A text to distinguish the deceased in the heart of Re, giving him power before Atum, to let him become great before Osiris, to let him become strong with Khont-Amenti, to give him authority before the Ennead. A treatment of the heart of the Akh-spirit (the deceased), so that he may step out far and that he may regain his stride, to drive off deafness and to open his face in the company of the God." In front of the chapel is Sennedjem and Iyneferti, represented in life-size. His arms are both raised in adoration. He wears the fashionable Ramesside loincloth with the front opening. He wears no jewelery, but has a headband and an ointment cone on top of his wig. Iyneferti, who stands behind him, wears a long pleated dress, but she is also without jewelery. In addition to the headband and ointment cone, she has a lotus blossom in her wig. Her right hand is raised, while in her left hand, she holds an open lotus stem.The Eastern Wall of the Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
Here, we find the solar barque Wj3 (Wia), greeted by two baboons, which travels from north to south. The location of this scene appears logical: it is located in the "sky" of the east wall, the baboon of the north greets the setting sun, and the one of the south, its early rising. The chattering which the baboons make at dawn and at twilight were taken as greetings by the Egyptians. The barque (view) presents a stern in the shape of a papyrus umbel, framed by two striped rudder-oars, affixed to posts which are themselves striped. The stern is concealed by what seems to be a red curtain hanging to the level of the water, from which extend what look like loops, drawn with dotted lines, never found a satisfactory explanation to these, which in other representations more closely resemble a net of pearls. Perched above this is a swallow, only seen in the tombs of Deir el-Medina. It is appropriate to the deceased's transformation; it is also a symbol of regeneration, as well as a messenger and companion of the sun during his journey. A hawk-headed solar god is seated in the center of the barque, his head surmounted with an enormous solar disc encircled by a Uraeus. He holds in his hand an ankh-sign, the symbol of life. In the text, he is named : "Ra-Horakhty-Atum, Lord of the two Lands of Heliopolis, Kheper-Re". Thus the two different phases of the solar life are joined. The star is born in the form of the Kheper scarab, on the eastern horizon; Ra at the zenith, his power decreasing and, as Atum, he will lie down in the western horizon; Atum being for a time 'the one who is' and 'the one who is no longer', he will restart the cycle during the nocturnal journey of the star in the Netherworld. In front of him, can be found a large shemes sign, here it is graphically represented with the leg. It represents the followers of Horus, that is to say, the blissful dead, of which Sennedjem wishes to be part. Behind the god is a small structure in the shape of Per-nu, the primitive shrine of Buto, in Lower Egypt.
Ayaro fields or "Fields of the Netherworld" are represented like some channels full of water surround and partition a central area, itself subdivided into several horizontal registers. In the right upper corner (south-east), some black and white tiles could symbolize an entry, a sluice, representing the source of the water, which would be taken from the Nile. In the horizontal registers, the upper one can be considered as separate, being rather mythological in nature, from the lower agricultural areas, which are themselves subdivided into three parts. At the right (south) extremity of each register is a small rectangle, reserved for a complementary element.
Upper Register:
On the left (north), Sennedjem and Iyneferti kneel on a kind of hillock with rounded sides, they are "on their sand", which means in the desert of the realm of the dead. They recite a prayer of praise to five gods, squatting on a Ma'at sign. The first is Ra-Horemakhty (Ra-Harmakis), wearing a large solar disc; the second is Osiris-khentyamentiu, wearing the white crown edged with two large feathers; the third is Ptah-Neb-Ma'at (Ptah, Lord of Truth), wearing his usual blue skullcap. Then follow two anonymous gods or genii representing the great Annead of gods (among whom these two always appear). Then comes a scene whose significance remains obscure: "his beloved son, Rahotep, Justified" sails southwards in a small papyrus craft. The young man turns his shaven head towards to the rear of his vessel and to the gods. The oar or pole which he is supposed to be using is not represented, although faint traces do exist, in particular above his raised upper hand. This is indeed strange, and is interpreted usually as the painter's mistake. With the image and the scene being so perfectly executed, it seems that the oversight must have been voluntary: could it have been that the artist didn't want the oar to pass over the top of the body. There is another son of Sennedjem, Khonsu, who performs the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, with the help of two adzes, on his father's coffin (and thus by magic on his mummy) (view): "Your mouth, Osiris Sennedjem Justified, is opened". It is also likely that the hidden meaning to this ritual is also to enliven the funerary servant who is supposed to carry out the work in place of the deceased. The small rectangle, at the right, includes the name and title of Sennedjem, above which are three green ovals. By referring to other versions of the Book of the Dead, they are designated as the "field of battle", the "place of offerings" and "the great one". They therefore relate to three regions of the underworld.
Middle Register:
Divided into two sub-registers, this area is dedicated to work in the fields. The upper sub-register consists of one scene, that of harvest. With the aid of a curved wooden sickle, of which the cutting edge is encrusted of flints, Sennedjem cuts the ears of corn very high. Thus, most of the straw won't be damaged by the trampling of the animals at the time of threshing. Iyneferti follows Sennedjem and collects the ears which have fallen to the ground in a basket. It should be noted in passing that the height of the stems and the expanse of the field suggest that the field has no limits. In the idyllic world of the hereafter, the harvests are always extraordinary; there are no birds to devour them, no locusts which will ravage everything in minutes. It is in order to show the abundance of the harvests, the scene of ploughing and sowing have, without any logic, been displaced to the sub-register below. It is also very strange to see the deceased couple achieving this work in their beautiful attire and best occasion wigs: even more proof of the eminently symbolic character of these agricultural scenes. The lower sub-register consists of two scenes. Firstly, harvesting flax. This plant is primarily used for the manufacture of linen, but it is also grown for its seeds (linseed) for the production of oil. Then, Sennedjem pulls the stems, Iyneferti follows him and collects the flax into sheaves. The action could take place at different periods of the year, according to the use to which the fibre was to be put in, which controlled the size of the plant required. Finally, ploughing and sowing. Sennedjem pushes at the rear of his plough pulled by two cows (oxen are never used for this work) scratching the land rather than ploughing it. He encourages the animals with the help of a whip with two thongs, of which the shape of the handle is a reminder of the hieroglyph "hem", servant. Iyneferti is behind him and appears to scatter the seeds rather than sowing them precisely. This scene is rather misleading. In fact, there were two ways to sow the seed. The first, on a land made soft by flooding, consisted of throwing the grain on the soil and then releasing a herd of animals whose rambling buries it. The second, on the harder land, consisted of firstly scattering, then passing the plough over it to bury the grain. In both cases, the sower would not have anything to do behind the plough-man. Notice that here, the extremity of the field is limited by a sycamore tree. The rectangles to the right of the sub-registers.
In the first, upper one, Sennedjem kneels on a green mat, which separates him from the dark soil. Facing south, he holds an open lotus flower toward his face, a symbol of rebirth. In front of him is an offering table garnished with breads and plants; beneath it is a container of wine. The lower one includes four green ovals which are probably the "place of the offerings", "light red", "luxuriant green" and "mistress of the two lands". All of these place names are taken from the Book of the Dead.
Lower Register:
This is divided into two by an irrigation channel, but it is actually one area. On the upper banks is represented an orchard, with date and dum palms alternating between fig sycamores; all are laden with fruit. The representation below, on the other side of the irrigation channel, is a flower garden (view), filled with red poppies, blue cornflowers and yellow flowering mandrakes. Although not fully completed, the artist created yet another individual rectangle, at the right-hand side of this register (view). A small island surrounded by channels of water. In one of the channels is the Djed-tefet barque of Re-Harakhte (Harmakis). The craft is symmetrical, with the prow and stern being indistinguishable and in the shape of a snake. It is powered by oars, both at the front as well as the rear. The barque can thus travel in the two directions, diurnal and nocturnal. At its center is constructed a flight of four steps, leading north to south. the significance of the vessel remains debated. Above are again two green ovals, named in other texts from the Book of the Dead, "strong" and "landing place". Scenes of the Vaulted Ceiling of the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
The vault consists of eight panels separated by bands of text. -On a level with the frieze, in the north and the south, run two lines of hieroglyphs containing an offering formula, addressed, in the south, to Hathor, who abides in the desert, to the gods and in particular to the one who is in Heliopolis, and in the north to Re-Horakhty-Atum, Lord of the Two Lands and Heliopolis.
Each of these texts asks for the deceased to be granted the special functions regulated by the divine powers: for him to breathe air and never be without water (Osiris), for him to come and go within the necropolis, for him not to be repulsed when approaching the gates of the Duat (Hathor), for him to become a spirit in the sky, for him to be given power on earth, and for him to be found just in the necropolis, sail in front of the stars and reach the boats of day and night (Re-Hor-Akhty). These longitudinal texts echo the various scenes depicted in the vault.
On the other hand, the transverse texts evoke the protection given to the deceased by several funerary divinities - Thoth, Lord of Hermopolis, who owns the divine words, Anubis, the four sons of Horus (divided here into two pairs: Amseti and Duamutef to the south, Qebehsenuef and Hapy to the north), who care for the internal organs of the dead and for the four cardinal points. The decoration of the vault suggests the journey from east to west towards rebirth, since the deceased must first of all identify certain divine powers before he can experience resurrection.
First Section:
The panels of the vault read from east to west. In the first section to the south (panel 1), the scene represents the vignette of chapter 109 of the Book of the Dead, and Re-Hor-akhty-Atum, Lord of the Two Lands and of Heliopolis. First the sun emerges from between the two turquoise sycamore trees which mark the horizon. The deceased is supposed, according to this same text, to recognize the manifestation of these two cosmic trees. The artist has then left a space for a character depicted as a young calf "pure of mouth", whose horns have not yet grown. He foreshadows the adult solar bull who goes forth in the sky. It is improbable that the human-headed god is a representation of Sirius, because this star is usually depicted as a female goddess whose rising precedes the rising of the sun. It is more likely to be the spirit of the food which accompanies the appearance of the sun, expressed by Hu or Ka. In a way it evokes the ka of the celestial food, a theme alluded to in the parallel panel. Opposite this scene, in the coolness of the north (west side) are Sennedjem and his wife. They are taking part in a divine banquet presented by Nut, the Great Lady of the Sycamore. The goddess, like a nymph, emerges from the nourishing tree whose fecundity is expressed by bunches of fruit, ready to be eaten. Sennedjem and lyneferti are depicted as if emerging from the courtyard of the tomb. The artist has represented the closing wall of the courtyard, from which opens the side door. The goddess pours the contents of an ewer towards the deceased, and presents them with a plate of offerings piled up with food. This scene, which closely resembles chapters 22 and 44 to 59 of the Book of the Dead, indicates that the deceased are given special treatment for the Feast of the New Year, which coincides with the annual flood. Thus Sennedjem and his wife are assured of water and food on a recurrent basis for the whole year to come.
Second Section:
Sennediem is oaring the same kilt as on the west wall of the tomb. He addresses praises to three divinities squatting on a Maat throne. The first god is hieracocephalous, while the other two have human heads. The text, which takes its inspiration from chapters 109,112,113 and 180 of the Book of the Dead, emphasizes the action of presenting adorations to the gods "who hold Maat", here an aspect of "She-who-is-far-away". The north scene is a parallel to the previous one, since the couple address their praises to the gods, the Lords of Heaven, shown as five divine figures squatting on a Maat throne against a blue sky, where the lunar-solar disc is accompanied by seven stars.
Situated to the north, it is possible that the stars represented the Great Bear, the nocturnal astronomical clock which indicated the hours, which were part of what the Egyptians called the imperishable stars because they never disappeared from the horizon.
Third Section:
The south scene resembles the vignette of chapter 108 of the Book of the Dead and represents another scene of adoration to the gods, the Lords of the Duat. Sennedjem has discarded his pointed kilt, and now wears a simpler garment which is probably more suited to the functions he is performing. He takes the last steps towards his celestial fate on his own. The Lords of the Underworld consist of a series of threatening characters: two guardian-gods, one human-headed and one dog-headed, squat on a platform. They yearn for truth, and wish to be convinced of the pure intentions of the one who is seeking eternal life. Behind them, the space is sub-divided into two sections: a celestial part characterized by the sky and a human-headed god, and a subterranean shown with a horizon and a snake-headed Lord of the Desert, resembling the snakes Mehen or Sa-to, who envelop the underworld with their coiled bodies. The north scene (panel 6) does not show the deceased. It is entirely dedicated to the representation of the sun boat sailing from west to east, contrary to the journey of the luminaries. On the prow of the same boat stands the phoenix of Re and the benu-bird, wearing an Osirid crown like the one worn by the god above on the vault. This is probably what has impelled the artist to position the boat as if it were sailing towards the east. Behind the benu-bird, which lives in the flooded lands, stands Re-Hor-akhty-Atum, Lord of the Two Lands and of Heliopolis, followed by the gods of the Great Ennead in the bark of Re, which is protected front and back by the two prophylactic eyes.
Fourth Section:
This last section provides a kind of conclusion. The south scene (panel 7) shows the deceased, dressed as before, going forth towards three divine figures, the first of which takes precedence over the other two: it is the ibis-headed Thoth, Lord of Hermopolis, scribe of Maat for the Ennead, to whom the text above the deceased is addressed. His epithets recalls that he holds power over the moon, which by its lunations forms the interlaced designs of celestial writing in the sky. Thoth is probably followed by Maat, while the third character wears the 'pshent' and could be identified as Atum, the setting sun, as indicated by his position at the extreme west of the tomb. As Atum disappears over the horizon, Thoth appears, bringing with him the new year; and the cycle starts again with the first scene of the vault, east of the burial chamber. The scene to the north expresses the idea that Sennedjem, like Atum, passes through the gates of the western horizon in order, like him to experience, rebirth in the morning, after being an Osiris during the night. The horizon is materialized by a folding door, its two sockets resting in the middle of the sign for mountain, the whole is topped by the sign for the sky. The artist has managed to express everything in the tiny funerary chamber. Sennedjem has accomplished his day-and-night journey. He has become better acquainted with the luminaries and the various mechanisms of the universe, in his tomb, inside his beautiful colourful coffin protected by the mummy wrappings and his amulets, he is now ready to face eternity, to live forever and ever, accompanied by terrestrial and celestial food, economically independent in the Fields of laru. Experiencing a lunar or solar rebirth, or assuming the shape of the imperishable stars, he has become immortal.Objects Found in the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
Sarcophagus of Sennedjem
The coffin of Sennedjem is made out of wood and it measures about 182 cm. long. The mummy of Sennedjem was covered with a cover and a mask inside the coffin that takes the shape of a mummy (anthropoid coffin), and this coffin in turn was kept inside a rectangular sarcophagus. The cover of the inner coffin was carved in the shape of the mummy of Sennedjem with his hands crossed upon his chest.
He is holding the 'Tyte' sign in one hand, symbol of protection, and the 'djd' pillar in the other hand, symbol of stability. He is wearing a curly hair wig with a diadem of flowers. He is wearing a wide collar with geometrical motif, he is also wearing a short false beard. The face, hands, beard, and also the amulets were done separately, then they were attached to the body of the coffin. Goddess Nut is protecting the mummy as she is stretching her wings upon the chest of Sennedjem. Beneath Nut and on both sides of the coffin, we can see god Anubis, the god of the necropolis, in the form of a jackal.
There is another representation of a goddess holding the (shen) sign, symbol of eternity and resurrection.
Among the scenes on the coffin, a representation for Sennedjem while drinking water from goddess Nut, and the water comes out of a sycamore tree.
The sides of the coffin are decorated with representations for god Thot headed-ibis, Anubis, and the four sons of Hours: Hapy and Quebehsnuef on the left, while Imesty and Duamutef are on the right.
We can see goddess Nyphtes is represented at the head of Sennedjem, while goddess Isis at his feet, and they played here the role of the mourners. They are also keep the protection for the body of Sennedjem during his journey to the netherworld.Canopic Jars found at the Burial Chamber of the Tomb of Sen-Nedjem
The canopic jars of Sennedjem are different in type than those we know since they take the shape of miniature anthropoid canopic coffins.
This canopic coffin takes the shape of the mummy of Sennedjem in the Osirid form and it was used for containing the viscera of Sennedjem who was the chief of the workers at Deir el-Madina (the valley of the workers), he was also responsible for building and decorating the royal tombs.
These canopic coffins consist of two pieces, and they were found wrapped in linen. It depicts Sennedjem in the form of Osiris, god of death, with his hands crossed upon his chest, and he is wearing a long hair wig that goes down till his shoulders.
He is also wearing a wide broad collar ornamenting his chest. The hieroglyphic inscriptions that runs around the body mention the names and titles of Sennedjem, the owner of the canopic coffin, and it is considered to be prayers for god Hapy who is responsible for protecting the lungs. In this case, the stopper of the chest that contain the canopic coffins may take the shape of the deceased himself or the four sons of Hours. The Sarcophagus of Khonsu at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
The sarcophagus of Khonsu was made out of wood, it was found by Marriette in 1886 at Dier el-Madinah, inside his father's tomb, and it dates back to the 19th dynasty.
It belonged to one of his sons who was called (Khonsu). It is about 125 cm. High, 262 cm long, 98 cm wide. It was decorated and inscribed with hieroglyphic texts which are taken from the Book of the Dead, from chapter number 17, once it was recited, he would be blessed in the hereafter and protected from any evil. Also, it was decorated with colorful scenes. On the first side, we have ibis-headed deities alternating with the four sons of Horus as a frame for the text of chapter 17. On the smaller sides, there are elegant goddesses arranged in two rows to protect the deceased's head, they were (Selket and Neith) and (Isis and Nephtys) .
On other side, we have in the upper register, two lions with bushy manes supporting the sun disc in the horizon and from which hangs the representation of life which is the (ankh) sign. The scene symbolizes the passage from "yesterday" to "tomorrow". It is placed in the middle of an adoration scene, to the right of the sun disc. Khonsu kneels with arms, in adoration attitude, worshiping god (Rehorakhty), who appears to the left, in the form of a falcon. The god exits out of the bushes born by the celestial cow (mehet wrt) which her name means (the great floods). On the lower register, god Anubis emblames Khonsu's body which lies on a leonine couch under a dais with multiple hangings. On either side, Isis dressed in red, and Nephtys dressed in white and keeps watching over the body. Standing upon the roof of the tomb, to the left, there is the (ba of Khonsu) with human heads and attached to bird's bodies, enjoying the offerings of flower and bread placed before them. Additional vignettes from chapter 17 are there which we have in the upper register. Two crouching genii and Nile gods make allusion to the annual inundation of the Nile. This piece is considered to be a masterpiece in Cairo Museum that is still having its color and decoration and we can't deny the touching beauty of the profiles with large eyes and the elegant customs and fineries which show the mastery of the art.The Bed of Senndjem at the Egyptian Museum In Cairo
The Bed of Sen-nedjem is made out of wood and dates back to the 19th dynasty. It's one of the most interesting pieces that was found inside his burial chamber at Deir-el-Madinah in western Thebes and dates back to the New Kingdom. It is rectangular in shape and covered with some sort of heavy solid mat, because of its being placed in his tomb.
It was painted with images of two snakes wind around it. The snakes refer to the protective snakes who protect god Osiris and the sun-god in the next world and also to protect Senndjem too.Construction Equipments of Sen-Nejem at The Egyptian Museum in Cairo
The Construction Equipments of Sen-Nejem are made out of wood and date back to the 19th dynasty. They were found inside his burial chamber at Dier el Madina in western Thebes.
The Ancient Egyptian thought about the metaphorical meaning of concepts such as (balance) or (level) and he associated doing his job right, as an artisan, with his life, like the same way that a balance keeps you straight, you have to be straight in your life. Inside his showcase, we have about 3 tools.
The first is the T square which is fitted with it's own plumb-bob. it is inscribed with a religious text.
The second tool is a wooden plumb of level, which consists of two short pieces projecting at right angles. This tool bears the name of (Sn-Ndjem) and it is about 48 cm long.
The third tool which is the wooden triangle, used to insure the smoothness and perfect alignment of the construction. It consists of three pieces, two of them were fixed together to form a right angle while the third smoothed piece serves as a cross bar, a lime-stone bob is suspended by a cord from the apex of the right angle. When placed against a perfect flat wall, the straight of the bob would fall between the two lions indicated on the cross bar.
The Chair of Sen-ndjem at The Egyptian Museum in Cairo
The chair of Sen-ndjem belongs to one of the famous workmen in the New Kingdom. it is made out of wood and found inside his burial chamber at Dier el Madina in western Thebes. It dates back to the 19th dynasty. Also inside the same showcase, we have different chairs which consist of two parts, one acts as the part that he sat on and another part to support his back. This chairs are decorated with colorful motives and painted in different colors. They are also decorated with hieroglyphic inscriptions to protect him from any evil, or some hymns to certain gods.
Also, we have some equipments used as seats, some without back, and cold stools. Some have different colors and sizes and also decorated by hieroglyphic inscriptions to give the name and the titles. About this tools made with a rush sate and it slopes in the center so that it would have been more comfortable to set on it.The Offering Table of Sen-Ndjem at The Egyptian Museum in Cairo
The Offering Table of Sen-Ndjem was made out of wood and dates back to the 19th dynasty, It was found inside his Sen-Ndjem's tomb at Dier el-Madaina. It is about 49cm high, 59cm long and 33cm wide. It was called in hieroglyphics 'wdhw'. The Ancient Egyptians used to provide real food and water placed in a mat, they put piece of bread over the mat which later became the (htp) sign, after that the offering table were made from stone, carved with signs of bread and beers.
This one is rectangular in shape and painted. It has the typical gifts of food and drink carved on its surface to help the owner in the hereafter.
We have two basins depicted on the table, into which the funerary priest would pour water or other liquids like milk or wine. Between them, there is a broad space, which was provided for solid offerings of food or flowers. The Sarcophagus of Khabekanet
The Sarcophagus of Khabekanet was made out of wood, painted orange, and it was found at Dier el Madina, in the tomb of Senndjem of the New Kingdom, 19th dynasty, reign of king Ramses II.
The sarcophagus is furnished with curved lid which imitates the roof of a noas with Cavetto cornice mounted on as hedge. which allowed it to be dragged. The sarcophagus is one of the best decorated of its kind and also it shows a beautiful vignettes.
The text and the representations which are inscribed on the sarcophagus are taken from the book of the dead, chapter number 17 which is concerned with the fact that the deceased had to know to became one of the blessed in the next world.
On the short sides of the rectangular sarcophagus, there are 4 goddess in female forms arranged in 2 groups: "Nieth and Serkt" protect the deceased's head, and "Isis and Nephtys" protect the deceased's feet.
The left side of the sarcophagus is arranged into 2 registers, where we can see 2 representations of god, that is to the right and to the left, and in the upper register facing each other.
Also, we can see god Anubis flanked Mesty and Dwamwtf (2 sons of Hours) who are represented with turned-up beard and holding cab signs.
We can see god Anubis mummified the body of the deceased who is represented lied on a bed.
Also, Khabekhanet and his wife are represented seated on a chair. Khabekhanet is represented with curly hair wig, with locks, and with a brownish color, wearing white garment and his feet placed on the pedestal. One of his hands pointing to an offering table which heaped with different types of offerings and the Senet game, which is a game with religious significance as it allows the deceased to pass in the afterlife and was mentioned in the Book of the Dead, chapter number (17). Behind him, we can see his wife. She is represented wearing long hair wig with locks and her hair ornamented with lotus flower, and also she is represented wearing a collar as well as embracing her husband.
There is a scene representing the deceased rising both hands in front of 2 representations of 'ckrw' gods, seated back to back, and upon their backs, there is a representation of the 'cob' sign hanging down from the '3ht' sign which appears above their back.
Also there is a scene of the Ibis-bird in front of an offering table which is heaped with different types of offerings. There is a scene of 2 representations of god to the right and to the left end of the upper register.
In the middle, there are 3 representations of the sons of Horus: in the middle Dwamwtf, and to the right side Habi, to the left Kabhsnwf. There is a scene of the deceased in mummified form laid on a bed flanked by 2 representations of Isis and Nephtys in the form of falcons, they are identified by their emblems.
There is a scene of 2 representations of genni from the underworld (with black color).The Boxes of Senndjem at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
The boxes of Senndjem date back to the New Kingdom and made of painted wood. Inside the showcase, we have two kinds of these boxes: The common one which has a lid and attached at the back with horizontal pivots, opens to reveal four comportments for cosmetics. The box could be secured by winding a piece of twine around the two knobs at the front. Its elaborate decoration was intended to imitate more expensive boxes inlaid with ebony, ivory and cedar. It was decorated with different daily-life scenes of trees, birds and animals.
About the 2nd kind, which is a rare piece inside this showcase. It is also rectangular in shape, but you can open it from the upper-part.
the lid is attached to sides to contain 2 small doors in the central. It was used to keep the jewelry, gold and the precious stones of the owner in order to protect them. We have about 40 boxes that belong to Senndjem, only 7 boxes are in Cairo Museum, and the rest in different places.