Built by the kings of the First Dynasty, Memphis had been the capital city of Egypt around 3000 BC, after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Though not much have survived from ancient Memphis, little remains– including scattered statues, alabaster beds, gigantic sarcophagi, sphinxes, and temples– provide clues to the religious life of the city.
At the reduction of influence of gods of Heliopolis, about the fifth and sixth dynasties, the gods of Memphis started to take a new character. As first principle, creator, 'father of gods', and head of a triad (that included his consort Sekhmet and their son Nefertem ), god Ptah (who was believed to have had international political powers) was combined with the gods of Heliopolis. Since Horus was an ingredient of god Ptah, the latter was made a supreme god when the former became the god of both Upper and Lower Egypt (after wars between him and Seth were brought to an end).