Saddat had been an active member in the Free Officers Movement before 1952 and became the Vice President during the rule of Abd al-Nasser . He is considered the second president of the Arab Republic of
. In 1970 , Saddat was elected the President of Egypt . On October 6 , 1973 Egypt regained its national pride by launching a sudden attack on the Israeli army . Egypt and Syria crossed the cease-fire lines in the Sinai and Golan Heights (which were occupied by Israel in 1967); crossed the
Canal; and destroyed Barlef Line . Other Arab countries shared in the war by cutting the oil supply to the West , a matter affected the Western aid to Israel . In November 1977 , Saddat went to Jerusalem to make negotiations regarding peace with Israel , which ended with the signing of the Camp David Agreements in 1978 , in which Israel agreed to withdraw from Sinai in May 1982 . The Egypt–Israel peace treaty brought to Saddat the enmity of most Arab countries that they suspended Egypt from the Arab League and transferred its headquarters from
to Tunisia . In 1981 , while watching a parade commemorating the victory of 1973 War , al-Sadat was assassinated .
During the rule of
Saddat , greater political freedom and a new economic policy were introduced . In the first years of his rule , he broke prisons and freed most prisoners who were arrested during Nasser era due to their political stands . He also brought to trial a number of former government officials accused of criminal excesses during the Nasser era .
Most importantly was his role in expanding participation in political life and encouraging the founding of new political parties . Although Nasser tended to apply socialism , Saddat followed capitalism and brought to Egypt the infitah or the 'open door' policy .