The Predynastic Period extends over a very long span of time marking the first evidence of human civilization beginning to appear in Egypt. That is, it is the period that preceded the invention of writing and recording, a period that witnessed the first man recording his ideas and achievement and expressing himself using written language on papyrus.
The process of recording events using the Egyptian Language, Hieroglyphics, began to appear in Egypt by the end of 4000 BC and the beginning of 3000 BC. Writing is considered the separate line between Prehistoric and historic Ages.
Discovered monuments contributed in clearing the vision over the prehistoric man through adding information about– among other things – his origin, culture, religious beliefs, houses, tools and tombs.
The separate lines between the recorded prehistoric ages and the division of historical periods differ from one country to another. In the Nile Valley, for example, writing appeared at the beginning of the year 3000 BC, whereas in Mesopotamia, it appeared in 2800 BC.
Prehistoric period is divided into three important phases, Paleolithic (600,000 –10,000 BC), Mesolithic Age (10,000–5,000 BC) and Neolithic Age (5,000 –3100 BC).
In Egypt, the Neolithic Age witnessed man's efforts in creating stable life either from the social, economic or religious aspects. Emerging from the surrounding environment and relying on nature imitation, his thoughts carried the meaning of creation and hard work.
This age is divided into two phases:
The first phrase is the one in which tools were made of stone rather than metal. This stage is called Neolithic. The second stage began with man using metals, particularly copper. Thus, it is called Chalcolithic Age.
The main centers of the first phase for the Neolithic Age, discovered up till now in Egypt are: Marmadat Bany Salama (Western Delta), Al Amry (at the head of the Delta), Northern Helwan, and Faiyum. These places represent the Northern Culture. The Southern Culture is represented by Deir Tasa (Tasa Monastry), in El-Badari City, Asyut. The Neolithic Age Culture is distinguished by general features, most importantly are:
1- Raising animals and livestock (like sheep, goats, oxen, pigs, and dogs) of which man availed in houses and farms.
2- Learning cultivation and establishing a stable settled life.
3- Smoothing stones to create tools and producing various kinds of them.
4- Making pottery, baskets, mats, and ropes, weaving flax, and producing leather.